Aum Shri Gurave NamaH!
Vritti means a whirl-pool. It is a wave of thought that arises in the Antahkarana. Vrittis are modifications of the mind. They are the effect of Avidya. When Avidya is destroyed by Jnana, Vrittis get absorbed in Brahman (Laya), just as water thrown in a heated pan is absorbed in the pan.
Where from does a Vritti arise? From the Chitta or mind.
Why does a Vritti arise? It is Svabhava of Antahkarana.
What is its function? It causes Avarana-Bhanga (removes the veil of Sthula Avidya that envelops the objects). It helps the evolution of a man till he attains perfection (Jivanmukti). It is Vritti that opens the Kundalini in a Jnani in the Ajna Chakra and joins it in Sahasrara. This is one path.
The Chitta is the mind stuff. It is the mental substance. Vritti or thought-wave is a modification of that mental substance. It is a process. Just as waves and bubbles arise from the surface of the ocean, so also these Vrittis arise from the surface of the mind-ocean. Just as rays emanate from the sun, so also these mental rays (modification of Vrittis) emanate from the mind-sun. Just as the sun merges itself in the horizon at sunset by collecting all its rays, so also you will have to merge in that Sun of Suns, Absolute Consciousness, Eternal Peace by collecting all the dissipated mental rays and dissolving the mind itself.
The function of a Vritti in the mind is to cause Avarana-Bhanga (removal of the veil of ignorance covering objects). Sthula Avidya or gross ignorance is enveloping all objects. When the veil is removed, perception of objects becomes possible. The Vritti removes the Avarana or layer of ignorance. When you pass through a big crowd or persons, you are able to notice a few persons. You do not see some persons, though they happen to come in front of you. Why? Because there was not complete Avarana-Bhanga. When this is done, the object shines before you.
According to Raja Yoga of Maharshi Patanjali, Pramana (right notion or right proof), Viparyaya (misconception), Vikalpa (fancy or imagination), Nidra (sleep) and Smriti (memory) are the five mental Vrittis or mental functions. If these five mental functions are suppressed, the suppression of desires and other functions will follow.
Vishayakara Vritti And Brahmakara Vritti
Through its own efforts, the mind assumes the shape of any object, it concentrates itself upon. If it thinks of a woman, it assumes the shape of a woman. This is termed Vritti Tadakara. If it thinks of God or Brahman, Brahmakara Vritti develops. In the former case, Rajas (passion) will be infused into the mind; while in the latter, Sattva (purity) will be infused.
When the mind thinks of objects and dwells on them, it assumes the shape of those objects. It is termed as Vishayakara Vritti. When it thinks of Brahman or Infinity, the Brahmakara Vritti is formed. The Sadhaka should be very vigilant and circumspect in watching the mind and its activities. He must convert Vishayakara Vritti into Brahmakara Vritti. As soon as the mind drops down from Brahmakara Vritti into Vishayakara Vritti, he should again make the mind assume Brahmakara Vritti. There is very hard struggle, indeed.
You cannot have Vishayakara Vritti as Ghatapatadi Vritti (modification of pot, cloth, etc.) and Brahmakara Vritti (thought of Brahman) also at the same time. It is Sruti Virodha (i.e. against the utterances of the Srutis). It is against practical experience also.
It is not the object that binds you. It is Vritti and identification (Tadatmya Sambandha) with the Vritti that causes attachment and bondage. It is through Avidya or ignorance that you identify yourself with Vritti as, for instance, when you say: "I am angry."
Kinds Of Vritti
Vrittis have been classified into five kinds: (1) Mano-Vritti, (2) Buddhi Vritti, (3) Sakshi Vritti, (4) Akhandakara Vritti and (5) Akhanda Ekarasa, Vritti. No. 1 belongs to the instinctive mind. Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 belong to the Sattvic mind. Mano-Vritti is the Vishayakara Vritti of worldlings. Buddhi Vritti belongs to Vivekins. When you identify yourself with the Sakshi Vritti, you can witness the modifications of the mind. When you try to feel that you are the Infinite Self, the Akhandakara Vritti is generated. It is also known as Brahmakara Vritti. There is no Vritti in Brahman.
From Mano-Vritti, you must jump to Viveka Vritti. Mano-Vritti concerns Manomaya Kosha. Viveka Vritti belongs to Vijnanamaya Kosha. By developing the Vijnanamaya Kosha, Mano-Vrittis are conquered. From Viveka Vritti, you must jump to Sakshi Vritti. From Sakshi Vritti, you must jump to Akhandakara Vritti. From Akhandakara Vritti, you must jump to Akhanda Ekarasa which is Brahma Svarupa. This is Kaivalya or final goal of life.
Antarmukha Vritti And Bahirmukha Vritti
When the outgoing tendencies of the mind are arrested, when the mind is retained within the heart, when all its attention is turned on itself alone, that condition is Antarmukha Vritti. The Antarmukha Vritti is the indrawing energy of the mind owing to increase in Sattva. The Sadhaka can do a lot of Sadhana when he has this inward Vritti.
The Bahirmukha Vritti is the outgoing tendency of the mind due to Rajas. When the vision is turned outward, the rush of fleeting events engages the mind. The outgoing energies of the mind begin to play. Further, on account of force of habit, the ears and eyes at once run towards sound and sight. Objects and desire are externalising forces. A Rajasic man full of desires can never dream of an inner spiritual life with Antarmukha Vritti. He is absolutely unfit for the practice of introspection.
You will get Antarmukha Vritti (inward-moving mind) only after you have destroyed all the externalising powers of the mind. Vairagya and introspection help a lot in the attainment of this mental state. You must starve the mind by Vairagya and Tyaga (renunciation of desires, objects and egoism). You must learn the art of making the mind introspective or turned inward upon itself through the Yogic Kriya, Pratyahara (abstraction). Just as you have to take back with care your cloth that is fallen on a thorny plant by removing the thorns one by one slowly, so also you will have to collect back with care and exertion the dissipated rays of the mind that are thrown over the sensual objects for very many years.
You will have to gather them patiently through Vairagya and Abhyasa (Practice), through Tyaga (renunciation) and Tapas and then march boldly with indefatigable energy towards God or Brahman. Those who know this practice can really be peaceful. They only can be really happy. When the mental rays are concentrated, illumination begins. Mind cannot do any havoc now. The mind cannot externalise itself. It can be kept inside the Hridaya-Guha (cave of the heart).
Destruction Of Vrittis Leads To Mental Strength
Mind gains great strength when the Vrittis are destroyed. It is not easy to destroy Vrittis (thought-waves) because they are innumerable. They should be taken up one by one and dealt with separately. Some Vrittis are very strong. They demand strong efforts for their destruction. Most of the Vrittis are very weak. Weak Vrittis melt away like rent clouds. Strong thoughts remain and frequently recur daily in the morning as soon as you rise from your bed.
Be silent. Enter silence. Silence is Atman. Silence is Brahman. Silence is centre. Silence is the Hridaya-Guha (heart-cave).
When the mind runs from one object to another, that state in the interval wherein you become mindless for a very short time is Svarupasthiti. That is Brahman. When the mind is controlled fully, Vrittis cease. When all the modifications subside, you enter into the silence then and then alone. Realize this, this very moment. Feel the divine glory and Brahmic splendor now by closing the eyes, by drawing the Indriyas (Senses), by stilling the mind, by silencing the thoughts, by sharpening the intellect, by purifying the Chitta, by meditating on Om, by chanting Om with Bhava (feeling). Keep up the continuity of Brahmic consciousness throughout the 24 hours. Have an unceasing flow of Aatmic consciousness. This is very, very important. This is a sine qua non. This is a great desideratum.
When all the Vrittis die, Samskaras and the frame of the mind remain. Samskaras can only be fried up by Nirbija-Samadhi.Evil Vrittis And Their Eradication by Swami Sivananda
Kama (Sexual passion), Krodha (Anger), Lobha (Lust), Moha (Delusion), Mada (Pride), Matsarya (Jealousy), Darpa (arrogance), Dambha (hypocrisy), Asuya (a form of jealousy), Irshya (intolerance), Ahankara (Ego), Raga (attachment), Dvesha (repulsion) are some of the evil Vrittis. They bind a man to Samsara (transmigration). Pride, illusion and desires are so many binding cords of the mind.
Lust, A Powerful Force
Kama (lust), Krodha (anger), Lobha (covetousness), Moha (delusion), Mada (pride), Matsarya (jealousy) are the six passions of the mind. If lust is conquered, anger, Lobha, etc., which are auxiliary weapons, will become ineffective. If this inveterate enemy, lust is destroyed, its followers or retinue can be quite easily conquered. If the commander is killed, it is easy to kill the soldiers. If lust, which is the source of all enjoyments, ceases, then all worldly bondage, which has its substratum in the mind, will cease. How, without its renunciation, can you expect to attain the rare Nirvikalpa Samadhi or Brahma Nishtha?
Lust arises in him who develops attachment specially towards a person of the opposite sex. Love’s principal weapon is woman or lust. Therefore, attachment should not be developed, specially towards the opposite sex.
The love between a husband and wife is mainly physical. It is of a selfish, ephemeral and changing nature. He who has realized Atman can really love all with sincerity of heart. The love between two aspirants based on psychological affinity and intellectual parity is real and lasting. Get rid of selfishness. Selfishness is a major dirt. It clouds the understanding. Remove it by selfless service, charity, study of Vedantic literature and Satsanga.
In a Jnanin, the sexual craving is entirely eradicated. In a Sadhaka, it remains well-controlled. In a householder, when not controlled, it does havoc. It exists in him in its fully expanded state. He cannot resist it. He yields to it helplessly on account of his weak will and lack of firm resolution.
If you keep lemon juice or tamarind juice in a golden cup, it is not spoiled or tainted. If you keep it in a brass or copper vessel, it is at once spoiled and rendered poisonous. Even so, even if there are some Vishaya-Vrittis (sensual thoughts) in the pure mind of a person, they will not pollute him and induce Vikara (sensual excitement). If there are sensual thoughts in persons with impure minds, they cause excitement in them when they come across sensual objects.
Remembrance of image of a woman unsettles the mind. When a tiger has once tasted human blood, it always runs after killing human beings. It becomes a man-eater. Even so, when the mind has once tasted sexual pleasures, it always runs after women. Lust is powerful. It carries a flowery bow equipped with five arrows, viz., Mohana (fascination), Stambhana (stupefaction), Unmadana (maddening), Soshana (emaciation) and Tapana (inflaming).
In the Bhagavad-Gita, you will find it mentioned that senses, mind and Buddhi are the seats of passions. Pranamaya Kosha is another seat. Desire is all-pervading in the body. Every cell, every atom, every molecule, every electron is surcharged with passion. There are under-currents, cross-currents, inter-currents and submarine currents in the ocean of passion. You must completely annihilate each one of them.
Be careful in destroying passions. It is easy to control the conscious mind. But, it is very difficult to control the subconscious mind. You may be a Sannyasin. You may be a moral man. Mark how the mind behaves or conducts itself in dreams. You begin to steal in dreams. You commit adultery in dreams. The sex-impulses, ambitions, low desires are all ingrained in you and deep-rooted in the subconscious mind. Destroy the subconscious mind and its Samskaras through Vichara, Brahma-Bhavana, meditation on ‘OM’ and its meaning. A man who is established in mental Brahmacharya can never have even a single thought of evil in dreams. He can never have a bad dream. There is lack of Vichara or Viveka in dream. That is the reason why you get bad dreams, even though you are pure in the Jagrat state through the power of Viveka and Vichara.
That state of mind wherein no single sexual thought enters the mind is termed mental Brahmacharya. Bhishma had this state. If you are not established in mental Brahmacharya, at least try to control the body when the sex-impulse is troubling you.
A Source Of Perpetual Danger To Sadhakas
The presence or recollection of a woman usually excites unholy ideas in the minds of recluses who have abandoned this world and devoted themselves to spiritual exercises and thus deprives them of the fruit of their austerity. It is very difficult to understand the presence of subtle lust in the minds of others, particularly in spiritual Sadhakas, though eye (look), tone, gestures, gait, behavior, etc., may give a clue.
The Example Of Jaimini
Once upon a time, Sri Vedavyasa was holding his Vedanta class amongst his students. In the course of his lecture, he mentioned that the young Brahmacharins should be very careful and should not mix with young ladies and that, with all their vigilance and circumspection, they may fall a victim as lust is very powerful. One of his students, Jaimini, the author of Purva-Mimamsa, was a little impertinent. He said, "Guruji Maharaj! Your statement is wrong. No lady can attract me. I am well-established in Brahmacharya." Vyasa said, "Jaimini, you will know that soon. I am going to Benares. I will return within three months. Be careful. Do not be puffed with pride." Sri Vyasa, through his Yogic powers, assumed the form of a beautiful young girl, with piercing eyes and very charming face, well-dressed in a thin silken garment. The lady was standing underneath a tree at sunset. Clouds gathered together. It began to rain. Accidentally, Jaimini was passing along the side of the tree. He saw the girl, felt pity and addressed her: "O lady, you can come and stay in my Ashrama. I shall give you shelter." The lady asked, "Are you living alone? Is any woman living there?" Jaimini replied, "I am alone. But, I am a perfect Brahmacharin. No lust can affect me. I am free from any sort of Vikara. You can stay there." The lady objected: "It is not right for a young virgin girl to stay with a Brahmacharin alone at night." Jaimini said, "O damsel, do not be afraid. I promise you of my perfect Brahmacharya." Then she agreed and stayed in his Ashrama at night. Jaimini slept outside and the lady was sleeping inside the room. At the dead of night, Jaimini began to feel the influence of lust in his mind. A little sexual craving arose in his mind. In the beginning, he was absolutely pure. He knocked at the door and said, "O lady, the wind is blowing outside. I cannot bear the cold blasts. I want to sleep inside." She opened the door. Jaimini was sleeping inside. Again, the sexual craving became a little more intense and keen, as he was very close to a lady and as he heard the sound of her bangles. Then he rose up and began to embrace her. At once, Sri Vyasa assumed his original form with his long beard and said, "O, my dear Jaimini, what about the strength of your Brahmacharya now? Are you established in your perfect celibacy now? What did you say when I was lecturing on this subject?" Jaimini dropped his head down in utter shame and said, "Guruji, I am wrong. Kindly pardon me."
Even Jesus was tempted by Satan. Buddha had to fight severely with Mara (lust) just before he attained his Nirvana or Buddhahood.
Beware Of Maya-a Warning To Aspirants
Therefore, oh, dear aspirants, you will have to be very, very careful. During the period of Sadhana, avoid the company of women. You must never mix with young ladies, however strong you may be. Maya works through under-currents so stealthily that you may not be aware of your actual downfall.
Keep the mind fully occupied with spiritual pursuits. Keep yourself at the farthest distance from everything that would stir up your passions. Then only you will be safe.
Note:Her safe means the Brahmachari (Celibate) will be pure in his thoughts and actions and will be able to continue with his sadhana.
Do not live with householders. Do not test your spiritual strength and purity when you are a beginner on the spiritual path. Do not rush into evil associations when you are a spiritual neophyte to show that you have the courage to face sin and impurity. It will be a serious mistake. You will be running into a grave danger. You will have a quick downfall. A small fire will be very easily extinguished by a heap of dust.
Mind has a great power of imitation. That is the reason why a spiritual aspirant is prohibited from mixing with householders. His mind will try to imitate the minds of worldlings. Downfall will ensue.
If an aspirant moves with rich people, Zamindars and Rajas, his mind begins to imitate the luxurious habits of these people and, ere long, he gets an unconscious downfall. Certain bad habits creep in him unconsciously. And he finds it difficult to tear out or remove these bad habits. After forty, it is difficult to tear out old habits and establish new healthy habits.
Note: The foundation for a long and healthy life can only be laid when a Man is young and is unmarried and if he remains celibate, and during this period he must develop good habits, which would remain his main Habit during his later life. Advantages are Excellent Memory, Intelligence, Universal Knowledge, Vitality etc. etc.
An aspirant can live only for a short time in his native place if there is an urgent call. Yogic rules and laws cannot permit him to stay there for a sufficiently long period, however suitable the place may be and whatever may be the degree of Vairagya (dispassion) of the aspirant. The force of Samskaras (impressions) is tremendous. Unless all the Samskaras are thoroughly burnt through pure Asamprajnata Samadhi or Nirvikalpa Avastha (seedless state), it is not safe for one to stay for a long time in one’s own native place. He is still within the danger zone.
After seclusion for five years, the aspirant should test his mental state by coming into the world and mixing with the worldly people. If there is no attraction for objects, he can be quite sure that he has reached the third Jnana-Bhumika-Tanumanasi-a stage wherein the mind is thinned out like a slender thread.
How Lust Develops And Ruins
From the bed of Samskaras and Vasanas emanates imagination, through memory. Then comes attachment. Along with imagination, emotion and impulse manifest. Emotion and impulse exist side by side. Then comes sexual irritation, sexual craving, excitement and burning in the mind and throughout the body. The irritation and burning in the mind penetrate into the physical body just as water in the pot penetrates into the surface of the pot. If you are very vigilant, you can drive off the imagination itself in the very beginning and avert the danger. Even if you allow the thief imagination to enter the first gate, keep a careful watch at the second gate when the irritation manifests. You can stop the burning now. You can stop also easily the strong sexual impulse from being transmitted to the Indriya itself. Draw the sex energy up towards the brain through Uddiyana and Kumbhaka. Repeat OM mentally with force. Divert the mind. Pray. Meditate.
Methods To Control Lust
Just as you control the itching sensation in an eczematous part of the leg or scabies of the hand, you must control the itching from lust by Viveka, Vichara, Brahma-Bhavana, light Sattvic diet, fasting, Pranayama, Uddiyana, Bandha, Satsanga, study of the Gita, Japa, prayer, etc. Then only can you enjoy spiritual bliss.
Vichara and Brahma-Bhavana
It is through constant Vichara and Brahma-Bhavana that the mind has to be weaned from lustful thoughts and tendencies. You must remove not only the sexual craving and the sexual impulses, but also sex-attraction. Think of the miseries that you get from a married life with its various entanglements and bondage. Make the mind understand by repeated auto-suggestions and hammering that sexual pleasure is false, worthless, illusory and full of pain. Place before the mind the advantages, bliss, power and knowledge of a spiritual life. Make it understand that the exalted, eternal life is in the immortal Atman. When it hears constantly these useful suggestions, it will slowly leave off its old habits. The attraction for the sex will slowly die. Then only real sex-sublimation will take place. You will become then only an Urdhvaretas.
Atman is sexless. There is no sex in the five elements. It is the mind that creates the sex idea. Sukadeva had no sex idea. Consider that a woman is a combination of five elements, a mass of electrons or atoms. The sex idea will slowly vanish.
There are two kinds of force in the mind, viz., hostile or antagonistic force and friendly or favorable force. Passion is hostile force that drags you down. Pure reason is a favorable force that elevates you and transmutes you into Divinity. Develop, therefore, my child, pure reason to get unalloyed bliss and supreme Brahmic knowledge. The passion will die itself.
Take light Sattvic food, such as milk, fruits, etc. You can control passions in this way. The wise say that purity of food leads to purity of mind.
Note: People suffering from Low sperm count or low semen, avoid Tea and Coffee, Nicotine products effect Sperms and Semen, well this good for spiritual development and also if Someone is craving for offspring and is not able to beget one.
Fasting weakens the sex Indriya. It destroys sexual excitement. Passionate young men and ladies should take recourse to occasional fasting. It will prove highly beneficial.
By Pranayama, the mind gradually proceeds from the gross to the subtle. It, therefore, exercises a wholesome check upon the sexual irritation. When some evil thought disturbs your mind, at once take to Padmasana or Siddhasana and practise Pranayama. The thought will leave you immediately.
Satsanga and Svadhyaya
Do not study romantic novels. Do not talk on sexual subjects. Do not keep company with men who indulge in sex. Strive your best to divert your mind and eyes from external objects that prompt sexual desires. Keep company with Sadhus and Sannyasins. Read sublime books such as the Gita, the Upanishads and the Yogavasishtha. Practise Mantra-Japa and Pranayama.
Keep the Mind Ever Engaged
Keep the mind fully occupied. You can be established in mental and physical Brahmacharya. I shall give here the routine of work: six hours for sleep (10 p.m. to 4 a.m.); six hours for meditation (4 a.m. and 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. to 10 p.m.); six hours for study; four hours for Nishkama work, service of the poor, service of the sick, etc., two hours for walking or indoor exercise. This will keep the mind ever engaged.
Benefits Of Brahmacharya
Mind, Prana, Virya (seminal energy) are three links of one chain. They are three pillars of the edifice of Jivatman. Destroy one pillar-either mind, Prana or Virya and the whole building will fall to pieces. If you can observe Akhanda Brahmacharya for a period of 12 years, you will enter into Nirvikalpa Samadhi spontaneously without any effort. The mind will be controlled by itself. Seminal energy is a potent Sakti. Semen is Brahman itself. A Brahmacharin who has practised unbroken celibacy for full twelve years will reach to Nirvikalpa state the moment he hears the Mahavakya "Tat Tvam Asi" (That thou art). His mind is extremely pure, strong and one-pointed. He need not have repeatedly undergone the lengthy process of Sravana (hearing) and Manana (intellection).
A drop of semen is made out of 40 drops of blood. The energy that is spent in one act of copulation is tantamount to expenditure of mental energy through mental exertion for 24 hours or expenditure of physical energy through physical exertion for three days. Mark how valuable and precious is semen! Do not waste this energy. Preserve it with great care. You will have wonderful vitality and energy. When it is not used, it is all transmuted into Ojas-Sakti (spiritual energy) and stored up in the brain. Western doctors know little of this salient point. Most of your ailments are due to excessive seminal wastage.
Note: Western Doctors in those meant all Allopath's.
A true Brahmacharin in thought, word and deed has wonderful thought-power. He can move the world. If you develop strict celibacy, Vichara-Sakti (power of enquiry) and Dharana-Sakti (power of grasping and holding the Truth) will develop. If a man persistently refuses to yield to his lower nature and remains as a strict celibate, the seminal energy is deflected upwards to the brain and is stored up as Ojas-Sakti (spiritual power). Thereby, the power of the intellect is intensified to a remarkable degree. The strict celibate has keen and acute memory even in old age. The celibate who has achieved the transmutation of the seminal energy will find that sexual desires no longer trouble him. Such celibate is known as Urdhvaretas. Hanuman, Bhishma, Lakshmana, Swami Dayananda and Swami Vivekananda were Urdhvareto-Yogins.
Anger-how It Arises
Anger arises in him who thinks of his enemy. Even if you have forgotten the feeling of annoyance, it lurks in the mind in a dormant form. The effect is there for some time. If you renew a number of times the same kind of thought of jealousy, envy or hatred about the same person, the effect lasts longer. Repetition of angry feeling intensifies hatred. Mere ill-feeling develops into intense malice by repetition of anger.
On days when you have many troubles, vexations, worries from the morning to evening, a trifling causes much irritation in the mind. The balance of mind is upset by a paltry affair. A single harsh word throws you out of the balance, whereas when you are peaceful throughout the day, even a strong abuse and severe censure do not produce any effect whatsoever.
Anger resides in the Linga Sarira or astral body. But, it percolates into the physical body just as water percolates through the pores into the outer surface of an earthen pot.
Ill-Effects Of Anger
Just as heat melts lead, just as heat and borax melt gold, even so, Kama and Krodha, the heating factors of the mind, melt it. When you are angry, the mind becomes disturbed. Similarly, when the mind is disturbed, the body also becomes disturbed. The whole nervous system is agitated. You become enervated.
Anger spoils the brain, nervous system and blood. When a wave of anger arises in the mind, Prana begins to vibrate rapidly. You are agitated and excited. Blood becomes hot. Many poisonous ingredients are formed in the blood. When the blood is agitated, the semen also is affected.
Once a child sucked the breast of his mother when she was in a fit of violent fury or rage and died immediately on account of poisoning by virulent chemical products that were thrown into the blood of the mother when she was in great excitement. Many such cases have been recorded. Such are the disastrous effects of anger. Even three minutes of violent hot temper may produce such deleterious effects in the nervous system that it will take weeks or months for the repair of injury.
Anger clouds understanding. When the mind is violently agitated, you cannot understand a passage of a book clearly. You cannot think properly and clearly. You cannot write a letter with a cool mind. When the lamp is flickering through wind, you do not see the objects clearly. Even so, when the Buddhi (mind) is flickering or agitated by anger, chaos arises in the Buddhi and you are not able to see and understand things properly. Buddhi is all light.
A man who is a slave to anger, may have washed himself well, anointed himself well, dressed his hair and put on white garments; yet he is ugly, being overcome by anger. There are symptoms on the face to indicate the presence of anger in the mind. If you get anger, you will lose the battle of life. If you have an easily irritable mind, you will not be able to do your daily duties and business in an efficient manner.
How To Control Anger
There are three ways of destroying the anger and lust Vrittis: (1) You can drive them through will-force. This is, no doubt, difficult and taxing. It exhausts your energy much. (2) Pratipaksha-Bhavana method: Entertain counter-thoughts- thoughts of purity and love. This is easy. (3) Live in Truth or Brahman. There are no Vrittis of any kind in Brahman. Brahman is Nirvikara, Nirvikalpa and Nitya Suddha (ever pure). This method is a perfect and powerful one. Vrittis completely die away.
Conquer passion. It will then be easy to subdue anger, which is only one of its followers.
Control anger by love. Anger is a powerful energy that is uncontrollable by practical Vyavaharic Buddhi, but controllable by pure reason (Sattvic Buddhi) or Viveka-Vichara.
When you become angry with your servant when he fails to supply your usual milk on a day, raise a question within yourself: "Why should I be a slave to milk?" Then the wave of anger will at once naturally subside. It will not arise on other occasions also, if you are careful and thoughtful.
Control anger by Kshama (forgiveness), Daya, patience, tolerance, universal love (Visva-Prema), mildness, Viveka, Vichara, Atma-Bhava, Udasinata, Nirabhimanata and such other virtues. Forgive and pity the man who does you harm. Consider censure as a blessing, ornament and nectar. Bear reproach. Develop universal love by service, charity, Brahma-Bhava. Recall any calm and pure state, which when once brought to mind, suppresses the hatred and brings composure. When anger is subdued, rudeness, pride and envy will vanish of themselves. Prayer and devotion will root out anger.
Practise Pratipaksha-Bhavana (entertaining a counter-idea). When you get angry, fill the mind with the idea of love. If you are depressed, fill the mind with the idea of joy and exhilaration.
When you become intensely angry, leave the place immediately for half an hour. Take a long walk. Repeat the sacred Mantra, "OM SANTIH," 108 times. Your anger will subside. I shall tell you another easy way. When you get angry, count from one to thirty. The anger will subside.
When anger tries to exhibit itself, observe silence. Keep quiet. Never utter a harsh word or obscene speech. Try to nip it before it emerges out from the subconscious mind. You will have to be very alert. It tries to come out suddenly. Before anger manifests, there is an agitation (Udvega) in the mind. You must try to extirpate this very agitation in the mind before it assumes a very gross form in the shape of twitching of muscles of the face, clenching of teeth, red eyes, etc. You will have to punish the mind well. You will have to impose self-restraint and punishment on yourself by way of fasting for a day whenever Udvega (agitation) manifests in the mind.
If you strive and make sincere effort to subdue your anger, the hatred subsides. Even then, a slight movement of impatience lingers although the angry feeling has gone. You must eschew this slight disturbance also. For a man who is leading a divine life, this is a very serious drawback.
Irritability is a weakness of the mind. If you are easily irritable, it is likely that you may do injustice to many. Remove this by the practice of patience, Titiksha, tolerance, Karuna (mercy), love, Brahma-Bhava, Narayana-Bhava, etc.
Calmness of mind is a direct means to the realisation of Brahman (or the Highest Self).
Verily a certain man in his behaviour is calm. His calmness is noticed by everyone as he discharges his duties, large and small, beautifully well. Another man is calm in his behaviour, in speech, which is noticed by everyone. For, by nature, he is friendly, sweet in speech, congenial, of a frank countenance, ready at greetings. You should be calm in all the three states. Towards such a one, the development of love is not difficult.
You must have the knack to keep the mind always in balance and in tune. Close your eyes. Dive deep into the Divine Source. Feel His Presence. Remember Him always. Practise His Name. Repeat His Name even while at work. You will gain immense spiritual strength. Meditate early in the morning before you mix with people. You must rise above the thousand and one things which would irritate you easily in the course of your daily life. Then only you can turn out wonderful work daily with harmony and concord.
Hatred And Its Modifications
Hatred and malice are two formidable passions. They are so deeply implanted in your system that it is very difficult to root them out. Pride is not so fearful as hatred and malice. When a man is placed in a high position and earns much money and is thereby honoured and respected by all, he becomes very proud. When he loses that position and fails to earn money, his pride vanishes. But hatred and malice are two passions which are inveterate and need constant and diligent efforts for their eradication.
Prejudice, intolerance, Ghrina, insolence, impertinence, scorn, contempt-these Vrittis are all modifications of the emotion of hatred. Suspicion becomes prejudice by repetition. Prejudice develops into ill-will (Ghrina) and intolerance. Ill-will is a mild form of hatred. When repeated, it develops into hatred. Hatred, by successive repetition, becomes malice or extreme enmity.
Prejudice or unreasonable dislike, prepossessions and intolerance are three undesirable Vrittis in the mind. Prejudice makes the mind and brain callous. The mind cannot think truly. Prejudice is a kind of mental sore. If you have prejudice against Mohammedans, you cannot understand the teachings of Mohammed in the Quoran. The brain and the mind will not harmoniously vibrate to receive the spiritual ideas of the Quoran, because the prejudice has rendered the mind callous.
Prejudice is like an open sore on the physical body through which the will-power of the man is leaking. Be liberal or catholic in your views. You must give a place for every school of philosophy and every religion. A particular religion suits a particular nation according to the stage of evolution, temperament and capacity of the people. Arya Samaja, Brahmo Samaja, New Thought Movement, Occultism and cults of various kinds and denominations serve their own useful purpose. Prejudice is only unreasonable dislike. You must remove it by efforts and right thinking.
Intolerance is narrow-mindedness on account of some narrow beliefs, convictions and views. You must be extremely detached and sober in your views. Your mind will be greatly disturbed through intolerance. Even though your views are diametrically opposite to the views of others, you must have perfect tolerance. A man of tolerance has an expanded heart. Tolerance brings lasting peace.
Insolence is overbearing nature. It is haughtiness manifested in contemptuous treatment of others. It is arrogant contempt. It is brutal impudence. It is grossly rude or disrespectful nature. Insolence is rude, haughty behaviour in violation of the established rules of social intercourse. The insolent man has utter disregard for the feelings of others. He makes personal attacks either in words or in actions, indicative of either scorn or triumph.
How To Eradicate Hatred
No Samadhi or union with God is possible when hatred, prejudice, jealousy, anger, lust, etc., exist in the mind. Remove these defects by love, Titiksha, Brahma-Bhavana, Atma-Drishti, Satsanga, Vichara. Love is the greatest power on earth. Karuna is the highest Sadhana. Do not give pain to others and relieve pain where it is; this is Karuna.
He who loves another man, loves himself only. He who gives rupees five as charity to a poor man in distress, gives it to himself. For, there is nothing else save his own self in the universe. He who hurts, hates and abuses another man, hurts, hates and abuses himself only. He digs his own grave.
When thoughts of revenge and hatred arise in the mind, try to control the physical body and speech first. Do not utter evil and harsh words. Do not censure. Do not try to injure others. If you succeed in this by practice for some months, the thoughts of revenge, having no scope for manifesting outside, will die by themselves. It is extremely difficult to control such thoughts from the very beginning without having recourse to control of body and speech first.
Constant Vichara and development of the opposite virtues -Prema, Daya and Karuna (love, compassion, sympathy and commiseration)-will eradicate the two violent passions of hatred and malice.
When hatred manifests, reflect on the blessings of love; it will slowly vanish. The blessings of love are many. Happy he sleeps. Happy he lives. He sees no bad dreams. He is dear to all alike. He is dear to subhuman beings. Devas guard him. Fire, poison and sword cannot approach him. Quickly he concentrates the mind. His complexion is serene. He dies peacefully and goes to Brahma-Loka.
Have no enemies. Do not entertain inimical thought against any person who might have done any wrong to you. If, while you are directing your mind towards your enemy, you recall the offences that have been committed against yourself and hatred arises in you, you should dispel it by repeatedly dwelling on love with him. Imagine again and again that he is your intimate friend and, with effort, raise a strong current of love towards him. Call in the mind affectionate feelings and others that cause love and tenderness. Remember the story of Pavahari Baba and Jayadeva, the author of Gita Govinda in Bhakta Vijaya, who intently prayed to God and got Mukti for his enemy-the robber who had cut off his two hands.
Serve the man whom you hate. Share with him what you have. Give him something to eat. Shampoo his legs. Make prostration sincerely. Your hatred will subside. He will also begin to love you. Gifts and kind words tame the untamed men. Men bow their heads by gifts and kind words.
If you give a blanket to a needy man with unwillingness, it is not Dana (charitable act) at all. It is a selfish act only. The mind will be waiting to take the blanket back when the first chance comes. Give anything willingly.
The Sadhana Of Equal Vision
Serve all. Serve the Lord in all. Love all. Respect all. Develop cosmic love. Have Atma-Bhavana and Atma-Drishti. Have equal vision (Sama Drishti). All kinds of hatred will disappear. The Sadhana of equal vision is extremely difficult, but strenuous and constant efforts will bring about success eventually.
Aspirants who wish to abolish the dividing line should immediately develop love for a very dear person, after him for an indifferent person and then after him for an enemy. And, in doing so, in each compartment they should make the heart tender and loving and should immediately afterwards induce Dhyana (meditation).
You should discriminate between a thief and an honest man, but you should love the thief. A worldly-minded person hates a thief, sees him outside and considers that he is entirely separate from the thief; whereas, a Jnani loves a thief as his own Self and sees him within himself.
When you remember that a savage or a rogue is a saint of the future and has all the divine qualities in a potential form, you will begin to love everybody. Hatred will slowly vanish. It is only a question of time for the rogue or the savage for his evolution and development.
An aspirant who wishes to begin with the development of the four divine states, viz., love, pity, sympathy, and even-mindedness should first, having cut off the impediments, take up the subject of meditation, finish his light tiffin and drive away his drowsiness due to eating, sit comfortably on a seat well-arranged in a secluded spot and think on the evils of hatred and the very many advantages of forbearance. Verily, by means of this practice, hatred will slowly vanish and forbearance will be developed. A man who is overcome with hatred and whose mind is assailed by hatred, kills beings. Patience is the highest virtue. Nothing can excel forbearance. He who is strong in forbearance is, indeed, a divine being.
There is nothing absolutely right or absolutely wrong in this relative universe. Right and wrong are mind-made. Everybody is right from his own point of view. There is a grain of truth in everything. The point of view is the determining factor in the life of each. When the understanding is illumined by wisdom, the point of view is broad and entire. When the understanding is darkened by ignorance, the point of view is narrow, limited and one-sided. Broad view is the sign of expansion of heart. A man of broad view is free from suspicion, prejudice, prepossessions and intolerance of various sorts. Broad view results from foreign travels, good birth, vast study, Satsanga, public service, varied experience, meditation, etc. A man of broad views sees things in their entirety and in their right relations. Broad view creates harmony and concord. Narrow view creates disharmony and discord.
Anticipation And Avarice
Memory and anticipation are two kinds of evil Vrittis for a spiritual aspirant, though they are beneficial for worldly-minded persons. Pratyasa (anticipation) and Parigraha (grasping) make you a beggar of beggars and destroy your will-power. Do not anticipate anything. Anticipation fattens the mind and causes restlessness. Do not expect anything. It causes mental disturbance. If you do not expect, you would not have disappointment. Forget everything that pertains to the world. Even if anything that is conducive to luxury comes, reject it at once. You will grow strong. Remember God and God alone. Everything else here is a dream. The world is a long dream.
Destroy avarice by Santosha (contentment), integrity, disinterestedness and charity. Do not entertain hopes. You will not have any disappointment. Santosha is one of the four sentinels of the domain of Moksha. A contented mind is a continual feast. If you have Santosha, you will get help from the other three sentinels, viz., Sama, Vichara and Satsanga. With the help of these four sentinels, you can attain Brahma-Jnana, the ultimate goal of life.
Moha And Its Cure
Moha (delusion) is a strong weapon of Maya. Do not say, my friend, that desire is more powerful than Moha. Moha is as much powerful and dangerous as desire is. Moha does three things. It creates the idea of ‘mineness’-my wife, my son, my house, etc. It produces infatuated love and attachment for body, wife, son and property. It creates the ‘Nitya-Buddhi’ (the idea of stability) in the perishable objects of the world and ‘Dehatma-Buddhi’. It makes a false thing appear as true. The world appears as real on account of Moha. The body is mistaken for Atman or pure Self owing to the delusive influence of Moha.
Although you know fully well that the body of a woman is made up of flesh, bone, skin, hair, blood, urine and faeces, yet you passionately cling to the form. Why? Because of the force of Raga, Moha, Samskara, Vasana and Kalpana (imagination). When there is Vasana-Kshaya (annihilation of Vasanas) through Vichara and Viveka, you will not be attached towards a woman.
Get rid of excessive Moha and attachment to wife, money and also children by Sannyasa (external renunciation). If there is external change, internal change must also come. External renunciation is quite necessary.
The mind is generally attracted by brilliant light, beauty, intelligence, varied colours and pleasant sounds. Do not be deceived by these paltry things. Enquire within. What is the Adhishthana or background for all these things? There is one Essence at the back of the mind and all objects of this seeming sense-universe. That Essence is all-full (Paripurna) and self-contained. That Essence is the Brahman of the Upanishads. That Essence verily you are-"Tat Tvam Asi"-my dear readers!
Pride is a feeling of superiority over others. It is of nine kinds: (i) physical pride (pride of possessing great physical strength), (ii) intellectual pride (pride of great learning), (iii) moral pride (pride of possessing great moral virtues), (iv) psychic pride (pride of possessing great psychic powers or Siddhis), (v) spiritual pride, (vi) pride of noble birth, (vii) pride of power, wealth and other possessions, (viii) pride of being handsome and (ix) Rajamada (pride of sovereignty). All these varieties of pride should be completely overcome.
Get rid of pride through Viveka. Everything is Anitya. Why are you vainly puffed up with pride?
Arrogance is a form of pride. It is undue assumption of self-importance. It is claiming too much.
Darpa is vanity. It is vain display. It is vain show. The man is puffed up even though he actually does not possess anything. A man of pride actually possesses something. That is the difference between pride and vanity. Vanity is a form of exaggerated pride.
Hypocrisy (Dambha) is pretending to be what one is really not. It is feigning. It is concealment of one’s true character. It is the opposite of Adambhitva of the Gita (XIII-7). A hypocrite pretends to be what he is really not, in order to extract money, honour, fame or something else from others.
Hypocrisy, falsehood, cheating, avarice and Trishna (avidity) are very closely related. They are members of one family. Hypocrisy is the offspring of avarice. Falsehood is the son of hypocrisy. Hypocrisy co-exists with falsehood. Trishna is the mother of hypocrisy. Hypocrisy cannot live even for a moment without falsehood, the son and avarice and Trishna (father and mother). When there is a craving for objects, greed for money comes in. Without money, there can be no enjoyment. To satisfy the hunger for money, persons have to put on hypocrisy, tell lies and cheat others. The root cause of all this is craving for enjoyment. Deceitful diplomacy and falsehood are old allies of greed and hatred.
Self-sufficiency is a peculiar modification in the mind. It is the effect of vanity, pride and Dambha. It is a Rajoguna Vritti. Remove it by right thinking, Vichara and practice of the opposite virtue, humility.
Jealousy And Its Modifications
Jealousy is a form of continuous anger. Irshya is a form of jealousy. It is a form of hatred. Blaming, accusing, mocking, ridiculing, unjust criticism, censure, cavilling, vilifying, tale-bearing, backbiting, scandalmongering, faultfinding, complaining-all proceed from jealousy, either subtle or gross, a hatred of various sorts. They all indicate lack of proper mental culture and meanness of the person. They should be removed.
Taunting is to censure sarcastically. Teasing is to torment or irritate with jests. Sneering is to show contempt by the expression of the face, as by turning up the nose. Frowning is to wrinkle the brow as in anger. Mocking is to laugh at in ridicule, to mimic in ridicule. Ridiculing is to make a wit exposing one to laughter. It is derision or mockery. It is exposing one to merriment. A joke is a clever insult. You must avoid all these when you move with others, as they cause rupture between friends, heated feelings and a sense of hostility. Words must be soft and arguments hard; if words are hard, they will bring discord. A single harsh word will break the friendship of long years in a minute. Word or sound has got tremendous power. It is Sabda Brahman. It is Sakti (Energy).
There is a world of difference between "Just comments" and Ninda (censure). "Just comments" is not Ninda. It is permissible. It is unavoidable too. You can avoid it only when you shut yourself alone in a far-off Himalayan cave. If you have no hatred for a man, if you are not jealous of him and if you point out to your friend in the course of conversation his weaknesses and good virtues also-"Mr. Thomas is an honest, loving, kind, sympathetic man. He is humble. He speaks the truth. But, he is extremely irritable and hot-tempered.” -this is not Ninda (censure) at all, although you point out the defect of Mr. Thomas. In Ninda, you vilify a man. You point out his defects only. You exaggerate his weaknesses. You point out the defect to everybody of your own accord without being asked. In your heart of hearts, you are jealous of the man. You want to vilify him.
If you always look into the faults of others, you will actually imbibe those faults by constantly thinking of them. Always look into the bright side of a man. Ignore his defects. Hatred will vanish. Love will increase.
Faultfinding, cavilling and scandalmongering are defects. Defects and weaknesses are two distinct qualities. Anger is a defect. Tea-habit is a weakness. To be over-sentimental is a weakness. Both defects and weaknesses should be removed by substituting the opposite virtues.
How To Destroy Jealousy
There are three ways of destroying jealousy:
(i) Mithya Drishti (Dosha Drishti): "The whole world with its enjoyments, wealth and luxury is quite illusory. What do I gain by being jealous of another?" When anyone thinks like this seriously several times daily, the Vritti of jealousy will slowly die. This Vritti is the root of all miseries. It is deep-rooted.
(ii) Bhratri Bhava (feeling of universal brotherhood). You are not jealous of your intimate friend or loving brother. In these cases, you have become one with your friend or brother. You feel inwardly that all that belong to them is yours. You will have to do this with everybody. You will have to love everybody as your brother or friend. Then you will have no Vritti of jealousy.
(iii) This is a developed stage: Repeat the formula ‘I am the all,’ ‘I am all-in all.’ Feel yourself everywhere. Think there is nothing save Atman, your own Self, everywhere. Jealousy will slowly vanish by entertaining this Atma-Bhava. You must always entertain this idea-"Vasudevah sarvamiti" (Vasudeva is all). "Vasudeva" means all-pervading. You will have infinite joy which can only be felt. It cannot be adequately described in words.
If you place a big mirror in front of a dog and keep some bread in front, the dog at once barks by looking at its reflection in the mirror. It foolishly imagines that there is another dog. Even so, man sees his own reflection only through his mind-mirror in all the people, but foolishly imagines like the dog that they are all different from him and fights on account of hatred and jealousy.
Fear-a Dire Disease
Fear is a great human curse. It is a negative thought. It is your worst enemy. It assumes various forms, viz., fear of death, fear of disease, fear of public criticism, fear of losing your property or money, etc. Fear blights many lives, makes people unhappy and unsuccessful.
Some people can bravely face the shell or the shot on the battlefield. But they are afraid of public criticism and public opinion. Some can face a tiger fearlessly in the forest. But they are afraid of the surgeon’s knife and bistoury. You should get rid of fear of all sorts.
The power of imagination in the mind intensifies fear. Fear is due to delusion or Moha, attachment to the gross and physical body on account of Avidya (ignorance). Attachment to the body (Moha, Dehadhyasa) is the cause of all fear. He who can throw off the physical sheath (Annamaya Kosha) either by Yoga or Jnana will be free from fear. He who has conquered fear, has conquered everything, has gained mastery over the mind.
Some people faint when they see a copious quantity of blood. Some men cannot see a surgical operation. They faint. These are all mental weaknesses. Some cannot take their food if some faecal or vomited matter is nearby. All mental weaknesses must be eradicated by Vichara.
A calm mind means courage. You may face without fear the trials and difficulties of the spiritual path. It has its root in the recognition of the unity of the Self. "Abhayam" (fearlessness) is one of the Daivi Sampats (divine qualities). Constantly think you are Atman. You will slowly develop immense courage. The one idea that you are the Immortal Self (Atman) can destroy efficiently fear of every description. This is the only potent tonic, the one sure panacea for this dire disease of fear. Think you are immortal (Amrita), fearless (Abhaya) Atman. Slowly the fear will vanish. Develop the positive virtue, namely, courage. Fear will slowly disappear.
Doubt is a great tormentor of mind. It has got a mental world of its own. It again and again troubles a man. There is no end for doubts. If one doubt is removed, another doubt stands ready to take its place. This is the trick of the mind. Cut the knot of doubts by the sword of wisdom. Know him who gets the doubts. No one doubts the doubter. If all doubts vanish through Brahma-Jnana, then the mind will be destroyed.
Thoughts of worry and thoughts of fear are fearful forces within us. They poison the very sources of life and destroy the harmony, the running efficiency, the vitality and vigour; while the opposite thoughts of cheerfulness, joy and courage heal, soothe, instead of irritating and immensely augment efficiency and multiply the mental power. Be always cheerful. Smile. Laugh.
Evil Vrittis Are Your Real Enemies-destroy Them
Who is your real enemy? It is your own Antahkarana (mind) possessed by the evil Vrittis. That mind alone, which is free from attachment, delusion, jealousy, lust, selfishness and anger, can have constant memory of God. If the mirror is dirty, you cannot see your face properly. Even so, if the mind-mirror is dirty through the accumulation of Mala (six passions, Kama, Krodha, etc.), Brahman cannot be reflected in the mind. When it is cleansed thoroughly, when it becomes Sattvic, it is fit (Yogayukta) to reflect Brahman.
Whatever you practise-Karma Yoga or Bhakti Yoga or Raja Yoga or Jnana Yoga-, you must be free from jealousy, hatred, attachment, pride and egoism and you must have control over Indriyas. Chitta-Suddhi-Yama and Niyama-is a common element in all kinds of Yoga. What can a man do in Karma Yoga if he has no self-restraint, if he is extremely selfish? If you want everything for yourself, if you are luxurious and if you have not reduced your wants, how can you spare something for others? You can unite with the cosmos only through love, unselfish service and disinterested charity.
Aspirants should totally abandon all the evil Vrittis described above. These constitute what is known as Asuri Sampat (devilish qualities). Whether you live in a town or in a cave of the Himalayas, it is all the same when you have a ruffled mind. You carry your own thoughts with you even if you remove yourself to a far-off, lonely cave. The mind remains the same. Peace comes from within. Irritation, anger, impatience, revenge, suspicion, prejudice, grudge, dislike, intolerance, restlessness, depression, fired or heated feelings-all these must be totally removed by spiritual Sadhana, by developing Sattvic qualities, by meditation on OM, by constant Vichara. Then only can peace be obtained. By developing Daivi Sampat (divine qualities) such as Karuna, Satya, Ahimsa, Brahmacharya, Daya, etc., the devilish qualities will be overcome.
Pratipaksha-Bhavana Or The Method Of Substitution
It is the method of substitution, Pratipaksha-Bhavana. When there is a lustful thought, substitute thoughts of purity. Begin to study the Gita or the Upanishads. Sing Hari’s Bhajana on harmonium. Impure thoughts will vanish. When there is hatred, substitute thoughts of love. Think of the good qualities of the man whom you hate. Remember again and again his kind actions. Serve him with sweets, fruits and milk. Talk to him kind words. Laugh with him. Shampoo his legs. Take him to be Lord Siva or Narayana when you serve him. Hatred will disappear. When there is fear, fill the mind with thoughts of courage. When there is irritability, meditate on the virtues of tolerance, patience and self-restraint. The negative thoughts will die of themselves. If you are depressed, fill the mind with the idea of joy and exhilaration. If you are sick, fill the mind with ideas of health, strength, power and vitality. Practise this. Practise this. Herein lies a great treasure for you.
Every thought or emotion or mood produces a strong vibration in every cell of the body and leaves a strong impression there. If you know the method of raising an opposite thought or counter-thought, then only you can lead a happy, harmonious life of peace and power. A thought of love will at once neutralise a thought of hatred. A thought of courage will immediately serve as a powerful antidote against a thought of fear.
Idea creates the world. Idea brings one into existence. Idea develops the desires and excites the passions. So, a contrary idea of killing the desires and passions will counteract the former idea of satisfying the desires. So, when a man will be impressed with this, a contrary idea will help him to destroy his desires and passions.
How can you ignore an evil thought? By forgetting. How can you forget? By not indulging in it again. How can you prevent the mind from indulging in it again? By thinking of something else which is more interesting. IGNORE. FORGET. THINK OF SOMETHING INTERESTING. This is a great Sadhana. Call to mind the sublime ideas contained in the Gita. Remember the ennobling and soul-elevating ideas embodied in the Upanishads and the Yogavasishtha. Argue, cogitate, reflect, ratiocinate within-subjectively. Worldly thoughts, thoughts of enmity, hatred, revenge, anger, lust-all will die.
When there are diseases, discord, disharmony in the cells of the body owing to influence of vicious thoughts, worry-thoughts, fear-thoughts, hatred-thoughts, jealousy-thoughts, lustful thoughts, you can neutralise the poison or canker in these diseased, morbid cells and establish peace, harmony, health, new vigour and vitality by entertaining sublime, soul-stirring, life-giving, soul-awakening, Sattvic, divine thoughts, by vibrations of ‘OM’ chanting, by repetition of the different Names of the Lord, by Pranayama, Kirtana (singing of the Name of the Lord), study of the Gita and the holy scriptures, by meditation, etc. Think constantly that you are Suddha Sat-Chit-Ananda Vyapaka Atman. All the evil propensities will vanish and the Sattvic virtues will manifest themselves.
Do not exert to destroy the different Vrittis-Kama, Krodha, Dvesha, etc. If you can destroy one Vritti Ahankara, all other Vrittis will die by themselves. Ahankara is the corner-stone of the edifice of Jiva. If the corner-stone is removed, the whole edifice of Jiva will tumble down. This is the secret.
Why are you afraid of Kama, Krodha, etc.? They are your servants. You are Sat-Chit-Ananda Atman. Assert the majesty and magnanimity of the Self.Theory Of Perception by Swami Sivananda
"When one thinks, then he understands; without having thought, one does not know; it is only after having thought that one understands."
(Chhandogya Upanishad, VII-xxi-1)
"I was absent-minded; I did not hear. I was absent-minded; I did not see. It is thus evident that a person sees with the mind, hears with the mind. Desire, determination, uncertainty, belief, disbelief, steadiness, unsteadiness, shame, intellect, fear—all these are in the mind alone. Therefore, when touched from behind, a person knows by the mind. (Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, I-v-3)
There are two compartments in the mind, viz., the thinking portion and the perceiving portion. It is easy to stop the thinking portion, but it is extremely difficult to stop the functioning of the perceiving portion.
It is only the individual mind that sees objects outside. If you see the same objects through a telescope, they appear different. If you can see with the mind directly, you will have a different vision altogether. Hiranyagarbha or Karya Brahman has quite a different vision. He sees everything as a vibration or movement within himself as his own Sankalpa, just as you can imagine within your own mind that a big war is going on and many people are dying on either side. You withdraw your imagination at your will.
Theories Of Perception
There is the elastic theory of the mind. This school of thought says that the mind becomes elastic when several objects come in contact with the various senses and thus puts itself simultaneously into touch with various sense-organs or Indriyas of knowledge (Jnana-Indriyas). When the mind comes in contact with one object and one Indriya, it contracts to a point. This theory is exploded and refuted by the Vedantins as unsound.
There is another school of thought that says that there are different compartments or parts in the mind. One part of the mind connects itself with one sense (Indriya), another part with a second sense and so on. This theory is similarly blown up and discarded by the Vedantins as untenable and unsound.
According to the school of thought known by the name of Drishti-Srishti-Vada, the perceiver and the perceived are one. Just as the spider weaves out the web from its own body, even so the mind throws out this physical universe from its own body during waking state and withdraws the world into its womb during sleep. An object is a mental Vritti externalised or objectified.
The Drishya (what you see outside) is due to mental Avidya. There is only light outside. There is only vibration outside. It is the mind that gives colour and shape. It is all mental deception. This is one view. This is one theory of perception.
The interaction between the mind inside and the Tanmatric vibrations outside is the object or the world that you see outside. This is one theory of perception. Mind is formed out of the Sattvic portion of the five Tanmatras. There is light outside. The sun also emits light. The eye is made up of fire or Agni-Tattva. That portion of the mind which perceives is also made up of Agni-Tattva. So fire sees fire. Only that portion of the mind which is made up of Sabda-Tanmatra can hear. Sound comes from Akasa outside. So Akasa of the mind hears Akasa from outside. But, Atman can see, hear, taste and feel everything. Atman only can be seen by Atman. Therefore, whatever you see outside is Atman only. "Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma—Everything is verily Brahman."
The View Of Western Medical Science
According to western medical science, light-vibrations from outside strike the retina and an inverted image is formed there. These vibrations are carried through optic tract and optic thalamus to the centre of vision in the occipital lobe of the brain in the back part of the head. There, a positive image is formed. Then only, you see the object in front of you.
Perception According To Sankhya Philosophy
According to Sankhya philosophy, the real back-ground of perception is the Purusha of whom the western doctors and psychologists have no idea. Fleshy eyes are only external instruments (Karanas) for perception. Eye is not an organ of vision. The organ of vision is a centre situated in the brain; so is the case with all senses. Mind is connected with the Indriyas, the Indriyas with the corresponding centres in brain and the centres, with the physical organs, to the external object. The mind presents the sensation to Buddhi; Buddhi takes it to the Purusha (which is pure Spirit, which is Immaterial). Now, real perception takes place. Purusha gives order to Buddhi. Then, Buddhi, after proper decision and judgment and after taking into consideration the pros and cons of the subject on hand, gives orders back to the mind, for execution through the motor centres (Karma-Indriyas or organs of action). Buddhi is the Prime Minister and Judge who hears the statements of the Advocate, viz., the mind. Mind plays two parts, viz., (i) that of an Advocate and (ii) that of a Commander-in-Chief. After receiving decisive orders from Buddhi, the mind acts the part of a Commander-in-Chief and executes the orders of Buddhi through the five soldiers, the five Karma-Indriyas. This is the theory of perception according to the Sankhya Philosophy. See how very clear matters are in Hindu Philosophy.
First of all, there is the instrument or Karana—for instance, the fleshy eye. It takes the sense-impressions to the centre or Indriya. The mind is then connected with the centre and the external instruments, namely, the physical eye, ear, etc. The mind carries the impressions still further and presents them to the Buddhi, the determinative faculty, which reacts. Then flashes out the idea of egoism or Ahankara, which self-arrogates and identifies with Abhimana. Then the mixture of action and reaction is presented to the Purusha, the real Soul who perceives an object in the mixture.
Knowledge comes through contact with objects (Indriyartha-Sannikarsha). To know a Prapancha Vishaya, Indriya, Antahkarana and Jiva are required. Indriya will see the Vishaya. Mind will make it appear. Buddhi, with the help of Abhasa Chaitanya, will understand it. Mind, senses and the Karanas (external instruments) such as the physical eye, ear, etc., should all be joined together. Then only perception of an object is possible. The object comes in contact with the senses. The senses are linked to the mind. The mind is connected to the Atman. The Atman illumines. This is with reference to the physical plane.
The Vedantic Theory
According to the Advaitic theory of perception, it is the Chaitanya within us that makes perception possible. The Chetana within us unites with the Chetana in the object and the result is perception. It does not follow from this that the mind and the senses are useless. The senses are necessary for the adaptation of perception to their approximate things. From the soul’s essential nature being intelligence, it does not follow that the senses are useless, for they serve the purpose of determining the special object of each sense.
The Vedantic theory of perception is that the mind comes out through the eye and assumes the shape of the object outside. The Antahkarana-Vritti enters through the opening of the Indriya (eye), removes Vishaya Ajnana, assumes Vishayakara (the shape and form of the object it envelops), presents the objects to your view. The function of Vritti is to cause Avarana-Bhanga (removal of the veil or layer of Sthula Avidya that envelops all objects).
A ray of the mind actually goes out, assumes the shape and form of the object and envelops it. Then only perception takes place. The perception of a book is possible only when the mind has assumed the actual shape of the book. Mental image plus external something is the object. Whatever objects you see outside, have got their own images in the mind.
When you pass through a mango garden, a ray of the mind comes out through the eye and envelops a mango. It assumes the shape of the mango. The ray is termed Vritti. The enveloping process is called Vritti-Vyapti. The function of a Vritti is to remove the Avarana (veil) that envelops the object and the Upahita Chaitanya. The veil that envelops the mango is removed by the Vritti or the mental ray. There is Chaitanya associated with the Vritti (Vritti Sahita Chaitanya). This Chaitanya illuminates the object ‘mango’. This is termed Phala-Vyapti. Just as a torchlight illumines an object in a flash, this Vritti-Chaitanya illumines the object. Then only does perception of the mango take place. Mind makes Sankalpa-Vikalpa: Is this a mango or not? Buddhi comes to help the mind and determines (this is a mango) through previous experience. Chitta makes Anusandhana (enquiry): "How can I get the mango? May I ask the gardener or the proprietor?" Ahankara asserts: "I must get the mango anyhow. I want it." Then the command is given by the mind to the Karma-Indriyas for execution.
When you see a mango tree, it is external to you. There is externality. The mango tree is a mental percept. It is a mental concept also. There is no mango tree apart from the mind. You know the existence of the tree through the mind only. There is a mental image in the mind. The image in the mind plus the external something is the mango tree. Even if you close your eyes, you can get at the image through memory. The green colour of the leaves is due to a certain rate of light vibrations (say, 10 millions of vibrations). These light vibrations strike at the retina and are taken to the vision centre at the back of the brain. The mango-leaves have the power to split the white rays and absorb the green colour only. So says science.
Your body also is as much external to you as that yonder mango tree. It is also a mental percept or mental concept. The mango tree is external to you with reference to your body only. The mango tree itself is a mere appearance that floats in the Absolute or the One Reality. As the mango tree is external to you from the standpoint of your body, and as the body itself is external to you, the idea of externality of the mango tree or this external universe is blown up now. The term internality also has a false existence only. There is internality only with reference to the externality. If the externality goes away, where is the internality? Both the terms internality and externality are mere illusions, creations of the mind. There is only the solid existence, the One Reality or Absolute behind the so-called internality and externality. That is the Real, Infinite ‘I’. That is your own Self.
Mind Alone Creates Differences
The eyes present before the mind some forms or images. It is the mind that creates good and bad forms. It says, "This is good. This is ugly. This is beautiful." Here comes bondage and trouble. Good and bad, ugly and beautiful are pure mental creations. If mind can create, it can destroy also. Similarly, the ears bring some sound vibrations before the mind. It is the mind that says: "This is praise. This is censure." Eyes and ears are not to be blamed at all. They are innocent. Mind causes the mischief.
Mental Cognition Takes Place Serially
Mind can think of only limited things. Mind cannot think of greenness without thinking of a green object.
Mind is Niravayava (without parts, divisions, compartments). It can have only one idea at a time. This is the Siddhanta of Naiyayikas. Even those Vedantins who say that mind is Savayava (with compartments) on the analogy of Chora-Nari (the prostitute whose mind is on the paramour even while she works in her house) admit that the mind can have Visesha Vritti of the lover only and Samanya Vritti of the work on hand at the time.
The human mind has the power of attending to only one object at a time, although it is able to pass from one object to another with a marvellous degree of speed, so rapidly in fact, that some have held that it could grasp several things at a time. Mind is a gate-keeper or guard who can allow only one person, one kind of sense-vibration at a time into the mental factory. You cannot hear and see at the same time. The mind can have only one idea at a time. But it moves with such tremendous lightning speed that an ordinary man thinks that he can have several ideas at a time.
Perception through the finite mind or cognition or experience takes place serially and not simultaneousely. Simultaneous knowledge can only be had in Nirvikalpa Samadhi where past and future merge in the present. Only a Yogin will have simultaneous knowledge. A man of the world with a finite mind can have only a knowledge in succession. Two thoughts, however closely related to each other, cannot exist at the same time. The nature of the internal organism (Antahkarana or Manas) prevents our having more than one aspect of an object at each instant presented to consciousness. Though several objects may come in contact simultaneously with the different sense-organs, yet the mind acts like a gatekeeper who can admit only one person at a time through the gate. The mind can send only one kind of sensation at a time into the mental factory inside for the manufacture of a decent percept and a nice concept.
When the mind gives attention and is attached to the sense of sight, it can only see. It cannot hear. It cannot hear and see at the same time. It is everybody’s daily experience. When your mind is wholly absorbed in deep study of some interesting book, you cannot hear even if a man shouts, because the mind was not there (with the sense of hearing). "My mind was elsewhere, I did not see; my mind was elsewhere, I did not hear, for man sees with his mind and hears with his mind." Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, I-v-3). When you seriously think of a problem, you can neither see nor hear nor feel. All the Indriyas are detached from the mind. There is only the process of Anusandhana (enquiry or investigation) by the Chitta (the mental substance).
The best philosophers and seers, Rishis and sages, the best authorities, Eastern and Western, hold to the "Single Idea" theory as being correct. They are unanimously agreed that the mind cannot actually attend to more than one thing at a time, but when it appears to be doing so, it is only moving with prodigious rapidity backward and forward, from one end to the other. Illiterate people say that they can see and hear at the same time. The mind moves with a tremendous velocity backward and forward and people imagine that mind can do two things at a time. It is a sad mistake. A spark of light presents the appearance of a continuous circle of light if it is made to rotate rapidly. Even so, though the mind can attend to only one thing at a time-either hearing or seeing or smelling— though it can admit only one kind of sensation at a time, yet we are led to believe that it does several actions simultaneously, because it moves from one object to another with tremendous velocity, so rapidly that its successive attention and perception appear as a simultaneous activity.
Compensatory Advantage In Sense Perception
In some persons, the sense of hearing is more developed than the sense of sight. Judges have acute hearing. Commanders-in-chief have acute sight. The profession itself forces them to develop the particular sense. Blind people have acute sense of hearing. If one Indriya is defective, nature compensates by developing more another Indriya. One of my friends knows of a blind man who can feel the nature of the colour by mere touch.
Speech is even the sight of the Purusha. Speech means here sound, the object of the sense of hearing. When this sense is enlightened, reflection is produced in the mind. By the mind effort to obtain external thing is made; for by the mind one sees, one hears. When one, at a time at night in the dark, cannot distinguish where sound arises (be it the neighing of horses or the braying of donkeys or the barking of dogs), he resorts there whence speech proceeds.
It is the mind that really sees, tastes, smells, hears and feels. When you begin to think of the picture of Lord Krishna with closed eyes, it is through the mind’s eye that you see the picture.
An occultist can dispense with his physical, fleshy eyes and can see directly with his mind. A Bhakta (devotee), being one with Isvara (Lord), sees directly with the eye of Isvara (with the eye of Karana-Sarira, seed-body). A Jnanin sees with the eye of Knowledge of Atman (Divya Drishti or Jnana-Chakshus).
How Brahman Perceives
In the mind, will and sight are separate. In pure Chit, will and seeing are one; will and sight are combined and no longer, as in the case of mind, separated from each other.
Brahman does not need Antahkarana to sense, think and reason. Brahman does not need eyes to see. He is self-luminous. He gives light to everything. He imparts light to Antahkarana. He gives light and power to the Indriyas. He is Chit-Svarupa. He is Chidghana. He is a mass of knowledge. He knows everything through Self-knowledge. He sees within Himself through Self-knowledge the whole universe as His own Sankalpa, as Vivarta.
How To Perceive Brahman
Brahman is not an object or Vishaya. It is to be felt by Sakshatkara (direct spiritual cognition). Knowledge of Brahman (Existence or Truth Absolute) comes through feeling and meditation (spiritual Anubhava, direct perception or Atma-sakshatkara) wherein the seer, sight and seen merge into the one existence like the bubble in the ocean.
Thought Is A Living Force
Thought is a vital, living force, the most vital, subtle and irresistible force that exists in the universe. The thought-world is more real relatively than this physical universe. Thoughts are living things. Every change in thought is accompanied by vibration of its matter (mental). Thought as force needs a special kind of subtle matter in its working.
Mind assumes the form of anything it contemplates. When you think of an object, your mind shapes itself into the form of that object. When you change your thought, your mind also changes its shape. Many modifications continually arise in the mind. Your thoughts rapidly change. Your mind also changes its shape rapidly. Every moment, mind is continually creating hundreds of these thought-forms and continually dispersing them again. It never holds on steadily to one thought-form for some time.
Every thought has a certain name and a certain form. Form is the grosser and name the finer state of a single manifesting power called thought. But, these three are one. It is the unity in trinity, the three degrees of existence of the same thing. Wherever the one is, the others also are there. Suppose your mind is now perfectly calm, entirely without thought. Nevertheless, as soon as thought begins to rise, it will immediately take name and form. Thus you find that every idea that man has, or can have, must be connected with a certain word as its counterpart.
Language is different, but thought is one. Mental image is the same in all. Sound has got four forms, viz., Para, Pasyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari. Vaikhari is the ordinary speech. It differs in different countries. But Para, Pasyanti and Madhyama are one and the same. Para is undifferentiated sound that lies dormant in Brahman. The language of the Devatas, the language in the mental plane is one. It is Madhyama. The rotatory vibration of the causal body (Karana-Sarira) is Pasyanti. That is your real name. When you operate through your Karana-Sarira, (lower Prakamya or lower Divya Drishti), you will hear the Pasyanti sound, your real name.
Thought Is Subtle Matter
Thought is subtle matter. A thought is as much solid as a piece of stone. You may die, but your thoughts can never die. They have form, size, shape, colour, quality, substance, power and weight. A spiritual thought has yellow colour; a thought charged with anger and hatred is of a dark red colour; a selfish thought has a brown colour; and so on. A Yogin can see directly with his inner Yogic eye all these thoughts.
The stronger the thoughts, the earlier the fructification. Thought is focussed and given a particular direction and, in the degree that thought is thus focussed and given direction, it is effective in the work it is sent out to accomplish.
Thought Is A Creative Force
Thought is a great force. Thought is a dynamic force. Thought moves. Thought is infectious. Thought creates. You can work wonders with the power of thought. Through the instrumentality of thought, you acquire creative power. There are now a days numerous books on thought-power, thought-dynamics and thought-culture. Study them. You will then have a comprehensive understanding of thought, its power, workings and usefulness.
The power of thought is very great. Every thought of yours has a literal value to you in every possible way. The strength of your body, the strength of your mind, your success in life and the pleasures you give to others by your company—all depend on the nature and quality of your thoughts. You must know thought-culture.
Thought Gives Health
If you entertain healthy thoughts, you can keep good health. If you hold on to sickly thoughts in the mind, thoughts of diseased tissues, thoughts of weak-nerves, thoughts of improper functioning of organs or viscera, you can never expect good health, beauty and harmony. The body is the product of the mind. If you hold on vigorous thoughts in the mind, then the physical body also will be vigorous.
Evil thoughts of all kinds befoul and infure the mind and, if persisted in, will become veritable diseases and maimings of the mind, incurable during the period of life.
Thought Builds Character
"As a man thinketh, so he is." "Man is created by thought; what a man thinks upon, that he becomes." Think you are strong; strong you become. Think you are weak; weak you become. Think you are a fool; fool you become. Think you are God; God you become. A man forms his own character, becoming that which he thinks. If you meditate on courage, you shall work courage into your character. So with purity, patience, unselfishness and self-control. If you think nobly, you shall gradually make for yourself a noble character, but if you think basely, a base character will be formed. Steady persevering thought sets up a definite habit of the mind and that habit manifests itself as a quality in the character. The thread of thought is woven into mental and moral qualities and these qualities in their totality form what we call character. You can build your character as surely as a mason can build a wall, working with and through the law.
The first step towards a deliberate creation of character lies then in the deliberate choosing of what we will think and then of thinking persistently on the quality chosen. Ere long, there will be a tendency to evince that quality; a little longer, its exercise will become habitual. Thought makes character. You spin the thread of thought into your destiny.
Thought Weaves Destiny
That which man thinks upon in one life, he becomes in another. If the mind dwells continually upon one train of thought, a groove is formed into which the thought-force runs automatically and such a habit of thought survives death and since it belongs to the ego, is carried over to the subsequent earth life as a thought tendency and capacity.
Every thought has got its own mental image. Every man has a mental world of his own, his own views, his own sentiments, his own feelings, his own habitual thoughts, his own experience and his own mode of thinking. The essence of the various mental images formed in one particular physical life is being worked out in the mental plane. It constitutes the basis for the next physical life. Just as a new physical body is formed in every birth, so also a new mind and a new Buddhi are formed in every birth.
It is difficult to explain the detailed workings of thought and Karma. Every Karma produces two fold effects, one on the individual mind and the other on the world. Man makes the circumstances of his future life by the effect of his actions upon others.
Every action has a past which leads up to it; every action has a future which proceeds from it. An action implies a desire which prompted it and a thought which shaped it. Each act is a link in an endless chain of causes and effects, each effect becoming a cause and each cause having been an effect; and each link in the endless chain is welded out of three components—desire, thought and activity. A desire stimulates a thought; a thought embodies itself in an act.
Selfish coveting of the possessions of others, though never carried out into active cheating in the present, makes one a thief in a later earth-life, while hatred and revenge secretly cherished are the seeds from which the murderer springs. So again, unselfish loving yields as harvest the philanthropist and the saint; and every thought of compassion helps to build the tender and pitiful nature which belongs to one who is a friend to all creatures.
Like Attracts Like
The great law, "Like attracts like," is ever operating. This is a great cosmic law. This is a law in nature. This law operates in the thought world also. People of similar thoughts are attracted towards each other. That is the reason why the maxims run as follows: "Birds of the same feather flock together... A man is known by the company he keeps." A doctor is drawn towards a doctor. A poet has attraction for another poet. A songster loves another songster. A philosopher likes another philosopher. A vagabond likes a vagabond. The mind has got a ‘drawing power’. You are continually attracting towards you, from both the seen and the unseen sides of life-forces, thoughts, influences and conditions most akin to those of your own thoughts and lives.
In the realm of thought, people of similar thoughts are attracted to one another. This universal law is continually operating whether we are conscious of it or not. We are all living, so to speak, in a vast ocean of thought; and the very atmosphere around us is continually filled with the thought-forces that are being continually sent or that are continually going out in the form of thought-waves. We are all affected more or less by these thought-forces either consciously or unconsciously and in the degree that we are more or less sensitively organised or in the degree we are negative and so are open to outside influences, rather than positive, which thus determine what influences shall enter into the domain of our thoughts and hence into our lives.
Carry any kind of thought you please about with you and so long as you retain it, no matter how you roam over land or sea, you will unceasingly attract to yourself, knowingly or inadvertently, exactly and only what corresponds to your own dominant quality of thought. Thoughts are your private property and you can regulate them to suit your taste entirely by steadily recognising your ability to do so. You have entirely in your own hands to determine the order of thought you entertain and consequently the order of influences you attract and are not mere willowy creatures of circumstances, unless indeed you choose to be.
Good Thoughts And Evil Thoughts
A good thought is thrice blessed. First, it benefits the thinker by improving his mental body (Manomaya Kosha). Secondly, it benefits the person about whom it is entertained. Lastly, it benefits all mankind by improving the general mental atmosphere.
An evil thought, on the contrary, is thrice cursed. First, it harms the thinker by doing injury to his mental body. Secondly, it harms the person who is its object. Lastly, it harms all mankind by vitiating the whole mental atmosphere.
Every evil thought is as a sword drawn on the person to whom it is directed. If you entertain thoughts of hatred, you are really a murderer of that man against whom you foster thoughts of hatred. You are your own suicide, because these thoughts rebound upon you only.
A mind tenanted by evil thoughts acts as a magnet to attract like thoughts from others and thus intensifies the original evil.
Evil thoughts thrown into the mental atmosphere poison receptive minds. To dwell on an evil thought gradually deprives it of its repulsiveness and impels the thinker to perform an action which embodies it.
The Progeny Of Thoughts
It is not sufficient that your thoughts are not bad. You must transmute bad thoughts into good thoughts. This is the first part of your Sadhana. You must make them helpful thoughts. When they are sent out, they must be capable of doing immense good and benefit to the suffering humanity and your neighbours.
Thoughts are your own real children. Be careful of your progeny of thoughts. A good son brings happiness, name and fame to the father. An evil son brings infamy, discredit to his father. Even so, a noble thought will bring happiness and joy to you. An evil thought will bring misery and trouble to you. Just as you rear up your children with great care, so also you will have to rear up good, sublime thoughts with great care.
Thought Is Contagious
Thought is very contagious, nay, more contagious than the Spanish Flu. Thought moves. It actually leaves the brain and hovers about. It enters the brains of others also. A sympathetic thought in you raises a sympathetic thought in others with whom you come in contact. A thought of anger produces a similar vibration in those who surround an angry man. It leaves the brain of one man and enters the brains of others who live at a long distance and excites them. A cheerful thought produces cheerful thought in others. A thought of joy creates sympathetically a thought of joy in others. You are filled with joy and intense delight when you see a batch of hilarious children playing mirthfully and dancing in joy.
In broadcasting, a singer sings beautiful songs at Calcutta. You can hear them nicely through the radio-set in your own house at Delhi. All messages are received through the wireless. Even so, your mind is like a wireless machine. A saint with peace, poise, harmony and spiritual waves sends out into the world thoughts of harmony and peace. They travel with tremendous lightning speed in all directions and enter the minds of thousands and produce in them also similar thoughts of harmony and peace. Whereas a worldly man whose mind is filled with jealousy, revenge and hatred sends out discordant thoughts which enter the minds of thousands and stir in them similar thoughts of hatred and discord.
Thought is very contagious. Keep a good and honest man in the company of a thief. He will begin to steal. Keep a sober man in the company of a drunkard. He will begin to drink.
Thought-TRANSFERENCE Or Telepathy
What is the possible medium through which thoughts can travel from one mind to another? The best possible explanation is that Manas or mind-substance fills all space like ether and it serves as the vehicle for thoughts as Prana is the vehicle for feelings, ether is the vehicle for heat, light and electricity, and air is the vehicle for sound. Mind is Vibhu (all-pervading) like Akasa. Hence, thought-transference is possible. Thought-transference is telepathy.
If we throw a piece of stone in a tank or a pool of water, it will produce a succession of concentric waves travelling all around from the affected place. The light of a candle will similarly give rise to waves of ethereal vibrations travelling in all directions from the candle. In the same manner, when a thought, whether good or evil, crosses the mind of a person, it gives rise to vibrations in the Manas or mental atmosphere, which travel far and wide in all directions.
While electricity travels at the rate of 1,86,000 miles per second, thoughts virtually travel in no time, their speed being as much faster than electricity as their vehicle Manas is finer than ether, the medium of electricity.
Thoughts are like things. Just as you hand over an orange to your friend and take it back, so also you can give a useful, powerful thought to your friend and take it back also. You must know the right technique to handle and manipulate a thought. The science is very interesting and subtle. You can aid a friend in trouble by sending him thoughts of comfort, a friend in search of Truth by thoughts clear and definite of the truths you know. You can send into the mental atmosphere thoughts which will raise, purify and inspire all who are sensible to them.
If you send out a loving, helpful thought to another man, it leaves your brain, goes directly to that man, raises a similar thought of love in his mind and returns back to you with redoubled force. If you send out a thought of hatred to another man, it hurts that man and hurts you also by returning back to you with redoubled force. Therefore, understand the laws of thought, raise only thoughts of mercy, love and kindness from your mind and be happy always.
When you send out a useful thought to help others, it must have a definite, positive purpose and aim. Then only it will bring out the desired effect. Then only that thought will accomplish a definite work.
The Duty Of An Aspirant
You should learn the method of sending out helping, loving thoughts to others and the whole world at large. You should know how to remove distraction and collect all thoughts and send them out as a battalion of helpful forces to do good to the suffering humanity. Thought-transference is a beautiful science. It is an exact science.
Just as the flowing Ganga brings joy and coolness to those who live on its banks, so also your strong thoughts of love and peace must flow out as a healing stream to bring solace, peace and glee to those persons whose minds are filled with care, worry, anxiety, tribulation, affliction, etc.
Even some good natured householders entertain some occasional good thoughts and send out into the world some helpful thoughts. This is not sufficient for an aspirant in the path of Truth. A continuous stream of helpful thoughts must gush out from his mind. It must be a perennial, healing stream of loving, helpful thoughts. He must be able to charge groups of twenty persons, masses of hundreds and thousands with love, joy and cheerfulness. He must stir them with a mere glance and a few sweet, powerful words into enthusiasm, high spirits and exalted moods and exhilaration. That is spiritual strength, will-force (Atma-Bala).
How Sannyasins Serve The World Through Their Thought-Vibrations
Indians have now imbibed the missionary spirit of the West and cry out that Sannyasins should come out and take part in social and political activities. It is a sad mistake. A Sannyasin or a Yogin need not become the President of an Association or the leader of a social or political movement. It is a foolish and puerile idea. A true Sannyasin can do everything through his thought-vibrations.
It is not necessary that a Sannyasin, a saint should appear on the platform to help the world, to preach and elevate the minds of people. Some saints preach by example. Their very lives are an embodiment of teaching. Their very sight elevates the minds of thousands. A saint is a living assurance for others for God-realisation. Many draw inspiration from the sight of holy saints. No one can check the thought-vibrations from the saints. Their pure, strong thought-vibrations travel a very long distance, purify the world and enter the minds of many thousands of persons. There is no doubt in this.
A sage living in a Himalayan cave can transmit a powerful thought to a corner of America. He who practises Nishkama Karma Yoga in the world purifies himself through disinterested works and he who meditates in a cave in the Himalayas and tries to purify himself really purifies the world, helps the world at large through his spiritual vibrations. Nobody can prevent his pure thoughts coming out and passing to others who really want them. Worldly-minded social workers cannot understand this point.
Clear Thinking-how It Is Accomplished
The common man does not know what deep thinking is. His thoughts run riot. There is a great deal of confusion in the mind sometimes. His mental images are very distorted. It is only thinkers, philosophers and Yogins who have well-defined, clear-cut mental images. They can be seen through clairvoyance very vividly. Those who practise concentration and meditation develop strong, well-formed mental images.
Most of your thoughts are not well-grounded. They come and slip away. They are, therefore, vague and indefinite. The images are not clear, strong and well-defined. You will have to reinforce them by clear, continuous and deep thinking. Through Vichara (ratiocination), Manana (deep reflection) and meditation, you will have to make the thoughts settle down and crystalise into a definite shape. Then the philosophical idea will become firm. Through right-thinking, reasoning, introspection and meditation, you will have to clarify your ideas. Then confusion will vanish. The thoughts will get settled and well-grounded.
Think clearly. Clarify your ideas again and again. Introspect in solitude. Purify your thoughts to a considerable degree. Silence the thoughts. Do not allow the mind to bubble. Let one thought-wave rise and settle down calmly. Then allow another thought to enter. Drive off all extraneous thoughts that have no connection with the subject-matter you are handling at the present moment.
Independent And Original Thinking
Thinkers are very few in this world. Most of us do not know what right thinking is. Thinking is shallow in the vast majority of persons. Deep thinking needs intense Sadhana (practice). It takes innumerable births for the proper evolution of the mind. Then only it can think deeply and properly. A man who speaks the truth and has moral purity has always powerful thoughts. One who has controlled anger by long practice has tremendous thought power. If a Yogin whose thought is very powerful speaks one word, it will produce tremendous impression on the minds of others.
Independent and original thinking is resorted to by the Vedantins. Vedantic Sadhana (Manana, reflection) demands a sharp intellect. Hard thinking, persistent thinking, clear thinking, thinking to the roots of all problems, to the very fundamentals of the situations, to the very presuppositions of all thoughts and being is the very essence of Vedantic Sadhana. You will have to abandon an old idea, however strong and ingrained it may be, when you get a new, elevating idea in its stead. If you have no courage to face the results of your thinking, to swallow the conclusions of your thinking, whatever they may mean to you personally, you should never take the trouble to philosophise. Take up to devotion.
Applied Thinking And Sustained Thinking
Applied thinking applies the mind to the object and sustained thinking keeps it continually engaged; rapture brings about the expanding and bliss of the developing mind whose motives for non-distraction have been accomplished by those two kinds of thinking. Meditation can arise when applied and sustained thinking, rapture, bliss and collectedness of mind arise.
Thought is a great force. It has got tremendous power. It becomes a matter of great moment to know how to use this power in the highest possible way and to the greatest possible effect. This can best be done by the practice of meditation.
If a pebble in our boot torments us we expel it. We take off the boot and shake it out. Once the matter is fairly understood, it is just as easy to expel an intruding and obnoxious thought from the mind. About this there ought to be no doubt, no two opinions. The thing is obvious, clear and unmistakable. It should be as easy to expel an obnoxious thought from your mind as it is to take a stone out of your shoe; and till a man can do that, it is just nonsense to talk about his ascendency and conquest over nature. He is a mere slave and prey to the bat-winged phantoms that flit through the corridor of his brain. Pitiable, indeed, is the lot of these creatures!
Benefits Of Thought-Control
Thoughts lead to action. Thoughts are the sources of all actions. Thought is the real Karma. Thinking is the real action. If you can root out all evil thoughts in the beginning, you will not do any evil action. If you can nip them in the bud, you will be free from the miseries and tribulations of this world. Watch your thoughts with vigilance and introspection.
Thought is the real action. Activities of the mind are the real Karmas. Once the Vikshepa of the mind vanishes, you will get good Nishtha (meditation). The mind will be very, very calm. Get rid of the impurities of the mind. Have mastery over the mind. Then all the miseries of the Samsara with births and deaths will come to an end. If you free yourself from the clutches of the mind, Moksha (liberation) will come by itself. There is no doubt about this.
A wise man watches his thoughts and eradicates all evil thoughts as they arise from the surface of the mind. So he is happy. He has always pure thoughts. By meditation on God, pure thoughts emanate from the mind, because God is purity (Nitya Suddha).
If you have control over your thoughts, you can turn out immense work with intense concentration. Mental torments of all sorts, cares, worries and anxieties will disappear. The peace that you will enjoy cannot be adequately described.
Those who have even a little control over their thoughts and speech will have a calm, serene, beautiful, charming face, sweet voice and brilliant, lustrous white eyes. Just as sweet perfume continuously emanates from an incense stick, so also divine perfume and divine effulgence (magnetic, Brahmic aura) radiate from a Yogin who has controlled his thoughts and who is constantly dwelling on Brahman or the infinite. The effulgence and perfume of his face is Brahma-Varchas. When you hold in your hand a bouquet made of jasmine, rose and Champaka flowers, the sweet perfume pervades the whole hall and tickles all alike. Even so, the perfume of fame and reputation (Yasas and Kirti) of a Yogin who has controlled his thoughts spreads far and wide. He becomes a cosmic force.
Radium is a rare commodity. There are only 16 grains in the world. Yogins who have controlled their thoughts are also very rare in the world, like radium.
Conservation And Proper Utilisation Of Thought-Energy
Just as energy is wasted in idle talk and gossiping, so also energy is wasted in entertaining useless thought. Therefore, you should not waste even a single thought. Do not waste even an iota of energy in useless thinking. Conserve all mental energy. Utilise it for higher spiritual purposes in divine contemplation, Brahma-Chintana and Brahma-Vichara. Conserve all thought-energy and utilise it for meditation and helpful service to humanity.
Do not store in your brain useless information. Learn to unmind the mind. Unlearn whatever you have learnt. They are now useless for you. Then only you can fill your mind with divine thoughts. You will gain new mental strength as all the dissipated mental rays are collected now.
In physics you have the term ‘power of orientation’. Though the mass of energy is there, the current will not flow. It must be connected to the magnet and then the electric current will flow through the power of orientation. Even so, the mental energy which is dissipated and misdirected in various worthless worldly concerns should be well-directed in proper spiritual channels.
Drive away from your mind all unnecessary, useless and obnoxious thoughts. Useless thoughts impede your spiritual growth; obnoxious thoughts are stumbling blocks to spiritual advancement. You are away from God when you entertain useless thoughts. Substitute thoughts of God. Entertain only thoughts that are helpful and useful. Useful thoughts are the stepping-stones to spiritual growth and progress. Do not allow the mind to run into the old grooves and to have its own ways and habits. Be on the careful watch.
You must eradicate through introspection all sorts of mean thoughts, useless thoughts, unworthy thoughts, impure thoughts, all sexual thoughts, thoughts of jealousy, hatred and selfishness. You must annihilate all destructive thoughts of disharmony and discord. You must develop thought-culture of good, loving, sublime thoughts, divine thoughts. Every thought must be of a constructive nature. It must be strong, positive and definite. The mental image must be of a clear-cut and well-defined nature. You must develop right thinking. Every thought must bring peace and solace to others. It should not bring even the least pain and unhappiness to anyone. Then you are a blessed soul on the earth. You are a mighty power on the earth. You can help many, heal thousands, spiritualise and elevate a large number of persons as did Jesus and Buddha.
Just as you grow jasmine, rose, lily, Honolulu flowers in a garden, so also you should cultivate the flowers of peaceful thoughts of love, mercy, kindness, purity in the vast garden of Antahkarana. Through introspection, you have to water this garden of mind with meditation and sublime thinking and remove the weeds of vain, useless discordant thoughts.
Generally, in untrained persons, four or five kinds of thoughts occupy the mind at a time. Household thoughts, business thoughts, thoughts of office, thoughts of body, thoughts of food and drink, hope and anticipation, some kind of planning to get money, some kinds of thoughts of revenge, some habitual thoughts of answering calls of nature, bathing, etc., occupy the mind at a time. When you are studying a book with interest at 3.30 p.m., the idea of pleasure of witnessing a cricket match at 4 p.m. disturbs your study every now and then. It is only a Yogin with Ekagra mind, who can have only one thought at a time and can keep it as long as he likes.
If you watch the mind carefully, you will find that many thoughts are inconsistent. The mind wanders at random aimlessly. There will be some thoughts of the body and its wants, some thoughts of friends, some thoughts of acquiring money, some thoughts of eating and drinking, some thoughts of your boyhood, etc. If you can study the mind and if you have consistent thoughts of one subject or one kind only to the exclusion of all other thoughts, this itself is a very great achievement, is a great step in advancement in thought-control. Do not be discouraged.
Haunting Thoughts Of Sin
Thoughts of sin haunt the minds of some persons. One man always thinks, "I have committed a very heinous sin. I do not know what to do." Again and again, this one idea haunts his mind. This is a bad habit. These people do not know how to divert their minds. They become prey to these ‘haunting thoughts’. Virtue and sin are relative terms. They are creations of the mind. Sin is nothing but a mistake. Japa of God’s Name, charity and fasting will destroy at once any amount of sin. Why are you afraid? Even the worst sinner can attain salvation, can become holy of holies. What was the state of Valmiki, Jagai and Madhai and Ajamila in the beginning? Were they not rogues of the first water? Repeat OM, Rama and assert boldly, ‘I am pure now’ ‘I am holy now’. Where is the room for despair? Nil desperandum. Do virtuous actions. Remember Him always. Be true to the Antaryamin (Indweller of your heart).
Techniques Of Thought-Control
The following are some of the auto-suggestions for controlling your thoughts: (1) I shall not think of anything. (2) I shall get peace, if I do not think of anything. (3) My will is growing strong. I can control my thoughts. (4) I will get perfect peace when I am thoughtless. I eagerly long for that thoughtless state.
Each thought, by itself, is extremely weak, because the mind is distracted into countless and ever-varying thoughts. The more the thoughts are restrained, the more is the mind concentrated and, consequently, the more does it gain in strength and power. Destroy the evil thoughts one by one. It doubtless needs patient work.
As soon as you slowly wake up in the morning, the first thought that comes is ‘I’. Then comes the memory of the events of the previous evening. The strong thoughts that float in the mind this evening slowly emerge out the moment you rise from your bed in the following morning and materialise. Then come the thoughts that are to fructify in the course of the day. Watch this carefully.
When a thought hovers in the mind, fulfil it. Do not allow it to linger on for a long time. It will frequently recur again and again. It will be a source of great trouble. Whenever a thought flashes out to write a letter to your friend, then and there finish that piece of work. Do not procrastinate it.
There are four ways of destroying evil thoughts. A Jnana Yogin (student of the path of Knowledge) does it by living in OM or Truth. He destroys the evil thoughts by Vichara and attitude of indifference. He says, "This has nothing to do with me. I am Satchidananda-Svarupa, Sivoham, Sivoham. These impulses belong to the mind. I am distinct from the mind." A Bhakta destroys the same by prayer and self-surrender. He says, "O God! I have surrendered myself, the fruits of all actions and the actions themselves to Thee. Give me strength to drive away and destroy these evil thoughts." He gets help from God through self-surrender. God sublimates the sex-impulse into Sattva or Ojas (spiritual energy). The Raja Yogin destroys evil thoughts either by destroying the Vrittis as they arise or by substituting opposite, positive thoughts of Sattvic nature, by supplanting sublime thoughts in their stead (Pratipaksha-Bhavana).
The first and foremost of all thoughts-the primeval thought-is ‘I’. It is only after the birth of this thought that any other thought can rise at all. It is only after the first personal pronoun ‘I’ has arisen in the mind that the second personal pronoun ‘You’ and the third personal pronoun ‘He’, etc., can make their appearance. If ‘I’ vanishes, ‘You’ and ‘He’ will disappear by themselves. Eradicate this false little ‘I’ of an illusory nature through proper Brahma Vichara. There is no other way.
Thinker is different from thought. Remember this. This gives the clue to the fact that you are the silent witness of the modifications that arise in the mind. You are Kutastha Brahman. You are Pratyagatman.
Destruction of Sankalpas
Raja Yoga teaches Yogas-chittavrittinirodhah:-"Yoga is the restraint of the mental modifications." It gives you the power of expelling the thoughts or, if need be, of killing them dead on the spot. Naturally, the art requires practice, but like other arts, when once acquired, there is no mystery or difficulty about it. It is worth practising.
Mark how one Sankalpa expands into many Sankalpas (imaginations) in a short time. Suppose you get a Sankalpa to have a tea-party for your friends. One thought of tea invites instantaneously the thoughts of sugar, milk, tea-cups, tables, chairs, table-cloth, napkins, spoons, sweetmeats, salted things, etc. So this world is nothing but the expansion of Sankalpas. There is no such thing as the world, independent of and apart from, thoughts. The expansion of thoughts of the mind towards objects is bondage (Bandha). Renunciation of Sankalpas is liberation (Moksha). In the string of Sankalpa, countless thoughts are strung like so many beads. If the string be cut into pieces, then you may infer what will become of the illusory thoughts which are strung on it. You must be very watchful and nip the Sankalpas in the bud. Then only will you be really happy. Mind plays tricks. You must understand its nature, ways and habits. Then only you can control it very easily.
Prana (energy) is the outer overcoat for the mind. The vibration of the subtle, psychic Prana gives rise to the formation of thought. By Pranayama (control of Prana or restraint of breath), you can also increase the mental energy and develop thought-control and thought-culture. This will help concentration and meditation. This will make the mind steady. This will remove Rajas and Tamas (passion and inertia). This will burn the dross in the mind.
If you think again and again on impure things, an evil thought gains new strength by repetition. It gets the force of momentum. You must drive them immediately. If you find it difficult to do so, entertain counter-thoughts of God. Cultivate sublime and elevating thoughts. Evil thoughts will die by themselves. A noble thought is a potent antidote to counteract an evil thought. This is easier than the former method. By repetition of God’s Name thousands of times daily, good thoughts gain new strength by each repetition. By repeating ‘Aham Brahma Asmi’ thousand times daily, the idea that you are the spirit (Atman) becomes stronger. The idea that you are the body becomes weaker and weaker.
Control of Body and Speech
If you are not able to control any evil thought, control the body and speech first. Slowly you will gain mental strength and will-force and will be able to control the thoughts gradually. If, for a moment you think you will not succeed in vanquishing an evil thought, at once get up and set about some work involving physical labour. One effort after another will make gradually the task easy and, in a few weeks, you will obtain a complete control over your thoughts.
Control the physical body and the speech first. Then slowly proceed to control thoughts. Do not speak ill of others. Control the Indriya of speech first. Gradually the mind will not think ill of others. The mind will say unto itself: "Why should I think ill of others when the organ of speech is not prepared to express what I think?" You can control your actions only when you have become moral. When you speak ill of a man, you poison the mind of several people. It is extremely ignoble to speak ill of others. But just comment without hatred or malice is permissible occasionally.
Do not allow useless or evil thoughts to develop themselves into words. Curb the speech. Divert the mind at once to some good thoughts. Try to remember some Slokas from the Gita or repeat some prayers. Keep some ‘word-image’ as "Om Hari," "Om Siva," "Om Narayana." Observance of Mouna (vow of silence) for a couple of hours daily will check the impulses of speech and thinking, will conserve energy and help meditation and thought-control and thought-culture.
Fully realise for yourself the grave and ruinous consequences of evil thoughts. This will set you on your guard when the evil thoughts would come. The moment they come, exert yourself or divert the mind to some other object of divine thoughts, prayer or Japa. A real earnestness to drive away the evil thoughts will keep you on the alert so much so that even if they appear in dream, you will at once wake up. Should the enemy appear when you are awake, it will not be very difficult for you to cope with him, if only you are sufficiently watchful.
Keep the Mind Fully Occupied
When the mind is vacant, evil thoughts try to enter. Evil thinking is the beginning or starting point of adultery. Through a lustful look only, you have already committed adultery in the heart. Mental actions are the real actions. Remember this. God judges a man by his motives; worldly people judge a man by his external physical actions. You will have to look to the motive of the man. Then you will not be mistaken. Keep the mind fully occupied. Then evil thoughts will not enter. An idle brain is the devil’s workshop. Watch the mind every minute. Always engage yourself in some work-stitching, cleaning vessels, sweeping, drawing water, reading, meditating, counting the beads, singing divine songs, praying, serving the elders or nursing the sick. Avoid loose talk and gossip. Fill the mind with sublime thoughts, such as those contained in the Gita, the Upanishads, the Yogavasishtha, etc.
Sattvic Background of Thought
The vast majority of people will always want something concrete to hold on to, something around which, as it were, to place their ideas, something which will be the centre of all thought-forms in their minds. That is mind’s very nature. A background of thought is needed for fixing the mind.
Have a Sattvic background of thought or mental image. The mind assumes the shape of any object it intently thinks upon. If it thinks of an orange, it assumes the shape of an orange. If it thinks of Lord Krishna with flute in hand, it assumes the shape of Lord Krishna. You must train the mind properly and give it proper, Sattvic food for assimilation.
You must have Sattvic background of thought to take you to the goal (salvation). If you are a devotee of Lord Krishna, have a background of thought of His picture and the repetition of His famous Mantra "Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya" and His qualities (Form-formula-qualities). A Nirguna Upasaka (Vedantin) should have a background of thought of ‘OM’ and its meaning (Infinite Ocean of Light, Satchidananda, Vyapaka, Paripurna Atman). Work in the world, and the moment the mind is free, begin to think of the background of thought- either Saguna or Nirguna background according to taste, temperament and capacity for Sadhana. By constant thinking, a habit in the mind will be formed and, without effort, the mind will run towards the background of thought.
It is a pity that the vast majority of persons have no ideal, no programme of life at all and no Sattvic background of thought. They are doomed to destruction. The background of thought of a young married lady is usually lustful. The background of thought of an old mother is the affection towards her sons and grandsons. The background of thought of the vast majority of persons is hatred and jealousy. Even the so-called educated persons with many university qualifications, which is only husk when compared with spiritual knowledge, have no ideal, no programme of life and no background of thought. A deputy collector, after getting pension, marries a third wife and goes on as a minister of a State.
A worldly-minded person is a prey to sexual thoughts and thoughts of hatred, anger and revenge. These two types of thoughts actually take possession of his mind. He is a slave to these two sets of thoughts. He does not know how to divert his mind and fix it on some other good, noble thought. He does not know the laws of thought. He is quite unaware of the nature and subtle workings of the mind. His position is extremely deplorable despite his earthly possessions and bookish knowledge obtained in universities. Viveka has not awakened in him. He has no Sraddha in saints, Sastras and God. He is unable to resist an evil desire, craving or temptation on account of his weak will. The only potent remedy to remove his world-intoxication, world-charm, world-delusion is constant Satsanga or association with Sadhus, Sannyasins and Mahatmas.
After retirement, everybody should have a background of thought and should spend his time in philosophical studies and divine contemplation. Old habits of loose thinking must be replaced by cultivating fresh habits of good thoughts. At first, a tendency to think of good thoughts will be formed. By continued practice, a positive definite habit of thinking of virtuous, helping thoughts will be developed. You will have to struggle very hard. The old habits will try to recur again and again. Till you are firmly established in the habit of thinking of good thoughts only, you will have to fill the mind again and again with Sattvic thoughts, divine thoughts, thoughts of the Gita, Lord Krishna, Lord Rama, the Upanishads, etc. New grooves and avenues will be formed now. Just as a gramophone-needle cuts a small groove in the plate, Sattvic thinking will cut new, healthy grooves in the mind and brain. New Samskaras will be formed.
Glory Of The Waveless Jnanin
Through constant and intense practice, you can become waveless (thought-free). The waveless Yogin helps the world more than the man on the platform. Ordinary people can hardly grasp this point. When you are waveless, you actually permeate and pervade every atom of the universe, purify and elevate the whole world. The names of waveless Jnanins such as Jada Bharata and Vamadeva are even now remembered. They never built Ashrams. They never lectured. They never published books. They never made disciples. Yet, what a tremendous influence these waveless Jnanins had produced on the minds of the people. Glory to such waveless Jnanins!
To Follow: MIND V
Note: Basically this article suggests that for Men who want to liberate themselves from this bondage of cycle of birth and death, or to develop spiritually, Women is a big stumbling block for them, same thing is true for those Women who want to live a life of Yogin or Sanyasin, or develop themselves spiritually they should read this Article by replacing Men with Women, where ever it is mentioned in this article, I am sure like Men have Semen to Control, Women also might have something that seeps off their energy and it could be the famous 'G' spot.
This is he easy way and you can see weigh things out for youself.
All the Best.
Sianala, Montreal, Feb 2008