Aum Shri Gurave NamaH!
1. Ways of Mind Differ
Though objects are similar, the ways of mind are different according to the difference in minds.
The minds are different. The way in which the objects affect the mind, and the way in which the mind is affected by them are entirely different. Desires also vary according to different minds. One mind wants money. Another mind wants power, name and fame. Another mind wants woman. Another mind runs after knowledge and spiritual pursuits. Different Bhavas are formed by different men with reference to one and the same object on account of previous Samskaras and difference in the degree of the qualities Sattva, Rajas and Tamas in their minds.
2. Mind and Perception
Nor are the objects dependent of a single mind. Because what would become of (objects) if (they are) not cognised by that mind?
If an object were dependent upon the mind, then in case the mind were restrained or attending to some other object, the object would not be touched thereby, nor would it come into objective relationship with any other mind. It would not be cognised by any other mind. Will it cease to exist at the time? Or coming into relationship again with the mind whence would it come back to life? Whence is the object produced? If from the perceiving agent, whether it is one mind that produces the object or many? If one, the existence of an object thought of in a moment preceding the thought of another object, cannot be possible. This is not the case; because even when my mind has stopped to think of an object, it is quite possible for the mind of Mr. Johnson or Mr. Alfred to think of the very same object at any subsequent time. I can also recognise the very same object when I again think of the same object. Therefore, objects cannot be said to be the result of the cognising agent. Further the parts of an object which are not in contact with the mind would not exist. Thus there would be no back, and how could then there be the front itself? For this reason, the object is self-dependent and common to all the Purushas. Mind also is self-dependent. Mind comes into relationship with the Purusha. Perception is attained by its contact with the Purusha.
3. Mind Is Colored by Objects
Since the mind is required to be colored thereby (by objects), the objects are known or unknown.
Objects are like magnet. They attract the mind and produce lust, anger, etc., in the mind. The mind by itself is free from lust, anger, etc. The mind is like iron. The objects color the mind and induce Vikara and change. Coloring of the mind is further explained in the theory of perception in Sutra IV-16.
4. Purusha Knows All Modifications
The modifications of mind are always known to its Lord (Purusha), due to His unchanging nature.
Mind is an instrument for the sensations of pleasure and pain. Its chief function is to grasp the Vishayas. Grasping of things means, mind becomes modified by assuming the forms of the objects. It attains Parinama. Purusha has no Parinama or change. Purusha is superior to mind. He is separate from mind. Hence He is called ‘the Lord’. Purusha is the ever-present witness of the mind. If the Purusha also is of changing nature like mind, He will also share the same fate as that of objects. Purusha is not an object of Vishaya by the mind. The consciousness is never suspended nor modified even for a second. Therefore, the unchanging Purusha exists. The modifications of the mind are, therefore, always known to the Purusha, its Lord. By this the unchangeable nature of the Purusha is inferred.
5. Mind Is Not Self-luminous
The mind is not self-luminous, because it is the knowable.
The sun does not shine there, nor the moon nor stars, nor the lightning; then what to speak of this little fire? It shines by Itself and illuminates every thing. Its light illuminates all these. (Katha Upanishad.)
Mind is Jada or insentient, but it appears to be luminous by contact with the Purusha or nearness to Purusha. The light of the Purusha is reflected on the mind, just as the reflection of sun is thrown in water. From the experiences: ‘I am hungry, I am powerful, I am afraid, I am dull,’ you can very well understand that mind has no self-luminosity. Purusha alone is self-luminous. Mind shines in borrowed light from the Purusha. This is explained in Sutra IV-22.
6. Mind Does One Thing at a Time
It is impossible for the mind to cognise two things at one time.
It would be impossible for any one to be conscious of both the mind and the object cognised by it at the same time. If the mind is self-luminous, it will be able to cognise two things at a time. If it hears something, it cannot see another thing. But the Purusha can cognise all at one and the same time. Therefore, the Purusha is self-luminous. He is Sarvajna (all-knowing).
A spark of light presents the appearance of a continuous circle of light if it is made to rotate rapidly. Even so, the mind, though it can attend to one thing at a time, either hearing, seeing or smelling, though it can admit one kind of sensation at a time, yet we are led to believe that it does several actions at a time, because, it moves from one object to another with tremendous velocity, so rapidly, that its successive attention and perception appear as a simultaneous activity.
Perception through the finite mind or cognition or experience takes place serially, and not simultaneously. Simultaneous knowledge can only be had in Nirvikalpa Samadhi where past and future are blended into the present. A Yogi only will have simultaneous knowledge. A man of the world with a finite mind can have knowledge in succession only. Though several objects may come in contact simultaneously with the different sense organs, yet the mind acts like a gate-keeper, who can admit only one person at a time in the gate. The mind can send only one kind of sensation at a time to the mental factory inside for the manufacture of a decent percepts and nice concept.
7. Cognition by One Mind
If cognition is postulated by another mind, there would be too many cognisers to know and the result will be confusion of memory.
If you assume that there is another mind which cognises this mind, then there must be another mind to cognise that one mind and so on, ad infinitum. There will be no end to such minds. The defect of regressus ad infinitum or Anavastha Dosha will crop up. Further there will be confusion of memory. The world’s process will not go on smoothly. Under these circumstances, therefore, we are sure that there does exist the Lord of the mind, the Purusha, the witness of the mind.
8. Mind Shines by Borrowed Light
Consciousness becomes conscious by taking the form of unchangeable.
When the reflection of Chaitanya falls on the mind, the mind also shines under borrowed light from the Purusha. This deluded mind thinks foolishly that it is itself Purusha. This is Ajnana, the root cause for human sufferings. The mind is magnetised by the Purusha. The mind borrows its light and power from the unchangeable Purusha.
9. Mind Understands Everything
The mind, being coloured by the Seer and the seen, understands everything.
Just as the transparent crystal and the red flower that is placed in close contact with it, appear as one and the same, just as the iron rod that is placed in fire appears as fire (Tadatmya Sambhanda), just as water when mixed with milk appears as milk, so also, the mind and Purusha appear as one (as Abheda). The mind is under double influence. It is affected by the objects outside and it takes the form of those objects. It is influenced by the Purusha and is rendered capable of cognising. Therefore, the mind acquires all knowledge of object. It gets the understanding power by the influence of Purusha.
10. Transformation of Mind
By these transformations of property (form), character (time), and condition in the elements (matter) and Indriyas (organs) are explained.
Antahkarana is Dharmi. It has three Dharmas viz., Vyuttana, Nirodha and Ekagrata. When one Dharma is operating, the other one has passed and the third one is yet to come. With reference to the Antahkarana, the Dharma that operates at the present moment is Dharma Parinama. With reference to what has passed and to that which is yet to come, it is Lakshana Parinama. If the present Dharma increases or decreases, it is Avastha Parinama. Thus the three kinds of Parinama occur in the Bhutas and Indriyas also. The mind assumes various forms. This is one kind of Parinama with reference to form. When the change becomes manifest in relation to some time, past, present or future, it is called Lakshana Parinama. When after this the particular property ripens into maturity or decay, it is called Avastha Parinama. The mind passes into various states. It is also Avastha Parinama.
11. Dharmi Explained
The substratum is that which is common to the latent, rising and indescribable.
‘Avyapadesya’ means subtle or hidden; hence indescribable. The properties which have once manifested and passed into a calm state are ‘Santa.’ They have played their part well. They will manifest at a future date. Those that are operating at the present moment are ‘active.’
12. Changes in Dharmas
The succession of changes (in Dharmas and Dharmi) is the cause for the distinctness of modifications.
The modifications of lust, pleasure, pain and Pramanas are Pratyaksha. Samadhi state, Nirodha, Vasanas, the connections between the Cheshtas of body and mind, the power of objects, Punya-apunya Dharmas, certain other modifications of the mind are Paroksha only.
Thought, The Origin Of Everything
Every thing in the material universe about us had its origin first in thought. From this, it took its form. Every castle, every statue, every painting, every piece of mechanism—in short, everything-had its birth, its origin, first in the mind of the one who formed it before it received its material expression or embodiment.
Mind has got various preoccupations. When an artist begins to draw a picture on the canvas, he draws the picture out of the material preconceived by the mind.
After all, the world is merely an idea or thought. Just as a seed begins to germinate at its proper time and place, so also the seer (knower) appears as the visible through the Sankalpa of the mind (the visible being no other than the seer itself). When the mind ceases to think, the world vanishes and there is bliss indescribable. When the mind begins to think, immediately the world reappears and there is suffering.
"Cogito, ergo sum—I think, therefore I am." This is Descartes’ fundamental basis of philosophy. This is in accordance with Sri Sankara’s statement that the Atman cannot be illusive; for he who would deny it, even in denying it, witnesses its reality.
The universe is rendered visible by mind. But, it is a pity that nobody has seen the mind save a seer. When you seriously and unceasingly think over the nature of the mind, it is nothing. When you begin to analyse mind, it is nothing. It dwindles to airy nothing. It is a bundle of thoughts and the thought ‘I’ is the root of all thoughts. This ‘I’ is a false idea, a non-entity. When the root of all thoughts vanishes into nothing, where is the boasted mind?
The first thought that arose in your mind was ‘Aham’, ‘I’. The last thought or Vritti that will arise in the mind before it is absorbed in Brahman will be Brahmakara Vritti which is produced by your feeling that you are Infinity.
Universe, A Creation Of The Cosmic Mind
The universe is not mental creation of Jiva. One single, organised thought of the Cosmic Mind (Hiranyagarbha) has materialised as the seeming universe. This phenomenal universe is but an outcome of the Divine Will, seeming to be real through the workings of the mind.
Before you write out a drama, you have a vivid mental picture of the whole drama in your mind. Then you write it out in succession in four acts. When it is staged, it is acted in succession, part by part. Similarly, the universe with its movements is a vivid mental picture in the Cosmic Mind—in the mind of Isvara. There is neither past nor future for Him. Everything is ‘Present’ for Him. There is neither ‘near’ nor ‘far’ for Him. Every place is ‘here’. Every time is ‘now’. The events come out in succession on the stage of the long world-drama as Time rolls on. Atoms rotate continuously. Old becomes new and new becomes old. In reality there is no such thing as old; there is no such thing as single. The Jivas with individual minds are witnessing the events in succession. But Isvara (GOD) knows all events at one sweep. He is Sarvajna (all-knowing). He is Sarvavit (all-understanding) also. He knows every detail of His creation. The Cosmic Mind creates the Maya. Individual minds receive things under delusion.
This universe is nothing but a mode of the mind, self-evolved from Brahman, the cause of the universe. All the universes which appear only through Manas are no other than its modes. The mind is subjective consciousness and objectively it is this universe. Hence, this all-pervading world is nothing but consciousness itself.
1. The Jiva and the universe are Brahman in their innate condition only.
Isvara And Maya
All the Samskaras float in Maya. Suppose there is a very big mirror. You can see in the mirror the reflection of all persons who move in the street, all carts, cars, all carriages which pass along the road. You can be simply watching these movements from a distance in the mirror without being affected in the least. Even so, the movements of this whole universe take place in the biggest mirror of Maya. Isvara or the Lord of the universe is simply witnessing everything. He is the silent Sakshi. When the Adrishta (the hidden power in Karmas) of the Jivas ripens, Isvara simply wills and the universe is projected.
Reality Of The Universe Lies In Sankalpa Of Manas
This ever-agitated Manas (mind), having come into existence out of the ineffable Brahman, creates the world according to its own Sankalpa (thoughts). This legerdemain of the universe springs out of the Sankalpa of your Manas. It is through the Sankalpa of your Manas that the universe appears to be and it is this Sankalpa that is asked to be given up by you if you wish to soar to the One Reality beyond the universe. "Sarvasankalpasannyasi Yogarudhastadochyate—He is said to be established in Yoga who has renounced all his Sankalpas." (Gita, VI-4)
With the growth of a paltry Sankalpa, there will arise the universe; with the extinction of the former, the latter also will disappear. With the annihilation of Sankalpa, all conception of differences between the seer and the seen will vanish and then the Reality of Brahman will begin to shine uninterrupted. Then the shadow of all the universe-movable and fixed-will be found absorbed in It in a non-dual state.
With the contemplation of ‘I’, all the train of ideas of the universe will set in; otherwise, all the universe will vanish as instantaneously as darkness before the sun. Mind and ‘I’ are one. Destroy the ‘I’, then the mind is destroyed.
"Manah-kalpitam Jagat-(Creation of) world is an imagination of the mind" (Yogavasishtha). This legerdemain of the world is enacted by the mind and the mind alone- "Manomatram Jagat. What you call world is the mind only." Mind is world. The mind manifests itself as the external world. This universe is no other than the mind itself. Like a dream generating another dream in it, the mind, having no visible form, will generate non-existent visibles. This perishable universe exists only when the mind exists, but disappears with the absence of the latter. If the mind, which is the instrument of knowledge, perception and activity, vanishes, with it disappears this subjective world also.
There is a corresponding notion and object for every Sabda (sound). There is a notion and an object for the Sabda "Cow." Maya is deceiving you through Sabda-jala. The whole world is a mere notion, mere idea. It is Sankalpamatra. It is Bhrantimatra. It is Kalpanamatra. It is Akasamatra. It exists in name only.
"Vacharambhanam Vikaro Namadheyam Mritti-ketyeva Satyam
—all modifications being only names based upon words, the truth being that all is clay." The whole world is a combination of five elements. Analyse, realise the illusory nature of all objects and abandon all false objects. When you begin to analyse, the whole world vanishes and with it the notion, sound, and objects also.
The happiness and misery experienced in this world are caused by the working of the mind. All the hosts of pains and pleasures arise from the mind only. They will perish if the mind perishes through stainless discrimination and spiritual Sadhana. The three worlds are created for the pleasures and pains of the mind. Suspension of the mental activity will cause the three worlds to disappear with their misery. With the destruction of the mind, all the three periods of time vanish into nothing. By controlling the mind, all occult powers are acquired. If the mind is not controlled, all else become useless and painful. Therefore, the mind should be annihilated.
Mind Functions Within The Three Categories
Mind always functions within the categories of time, space and causation. These three categories are mental creations only. A coconut tree is not really twenty feet high. The height is only a mental interpretation. There are vibrations only outside. It is the mind that creates length, breadth, height, thickness, dimensions, void, square, etc. A distance of two miles comes out of feeling only. You actually feel that you have walked so much distance. When you transcend the mind, all these categories vanish entirely. Annihilate the mind, therefore, through Brahmavichara. You will enter a realm of Peace and Ananda which is eternal, infinite and causeless (Parama Karana).
The Why And How Of The Universe, a Transcendental Question
Mr. Narain, my friend who is standing before me, is my own mental creation. Even this world is my own mental creation.
Abhava or non-existence is said to be an object of perception, since non-existence of a thing means its existence somewhere else.
According to the idealistic theory, there is no world at all in reality. It is all mere mental imagination. This is Vijnanavada of the Buddhists.
According to the realistic theory, the world is a solid reality. Even the dualist school of Madhva and Visishtadvaita school of Ramanuja and Raja Yogic school of Maharshi Patanjali hold that the world is real (Jagat Satyam).
Kant has demonstrated that space, time and causation are not objective realities, but only subjective forms of our intellect, and the unavoidable conclusion is that the world, so far as it is extended in space, is running on in time and ruled throughout by causality, is merely a representation of our mind and nothing beyond it.
A finite mind that is gross and conditioned by time, space and causation cannot comprehend the why and how of the universe, a question that is transcendental. The question has never been answered by anybody, by any Sastra, by any sage or Acharya. Do not rack your mind on this point. You can never get a solution for this problem. It is Mauja of Brahman to create this universe. It is His Lila-Vilasa. It is His Maya. It is His Svabhava.
Non-Existence Of The World, what It Means
The Abhava of Jagat (non-existence of the world) or its Nasa (destruction) does not mean the annihilation of mountains, lakes, trees and rivers. When your Nischaya (determination) that this world is Mithya (unreal, illusory) gets stronger and stronger and when you are well-established on this idea that this world is illusory like Mrigatrishna (mirage), this alone is destruction of the world.
You cannot destroy a mountain, but you can destroy the idea of a mountain.
The universe is like a Svapna in Jagrat. Just as there is the image in the mirror, this world is a big image in the mind-mirror. The mind is like a big Chaddar (thick cloth) painted with various pictures. There is neither painter nor canvas nor any material for painting such as brush, dish, oil, powder, etc. The picture of the universe appears depicted on the spotless Jnana-Akasa (knowledge-space).
The play of the mind arising out of Chaitanya (pure consciousness) constitutes this universe. Mind is Maya. Maya is mind. The workings of the mind are nothing but the workings of Maya itself. Attraction or attachment in the mind towards forms is Maya. Identification of one’s own self with the mind is Maya.
How The Mind Manifests As The World
The motion or vibration of Prana moves the mind. The movement of the mind generates the universe. The mind manifests itself as the external world. Nama-Rupa (names and forms) arise owing to Vikshepa Sakti, one of the powers of Maya. The Vikshepa force operates both in the Jagrat and the Svapna states. The whole world is projected on account of this power only. In sleep, it disappears.
The world enters the mind through the eyes, ears, tongue (speech) and old Samskaras. If you remain in the seclusion, you can shut out these first three doors. Through Vichara (right enquiry of Supreme Self), you can destroy the Samskaras, the fourth route. Then Jnana (Knowledge of Self) will dawn.
All the universes with their heterogeneity, though really Atma-Jnana, shine as worlds only through our illusory mind, like the blueness of the sky which is really non-existent. The Self-light of Para Brahman alone is appearing as the mind or this motley universe. Mind is Prajna-Sakti. Matter is Bhuta-Sakti. Prana is Kriya-Sakti of Brahman. Everything belongs to Brahman. In reality, there is no Jiva. There is Brahman only.
The mind which ever rises and falls with the ebb of desires, fancies this illusory universe to be through its ignorance; but it should be informed of the real nature of this world, then it will cognise it to be Brahman itself.
Sit in silence in a solitary room and watch the various mental phenomena, mental states, moods, impulses, emotions, sentiments, whims, fancies that occur in the mind. It will be of absorbing interest to study the subtle states of the inner psychic world.
There are two powerful instincts in the human beings and animals too. They are the instinct of self-preservation and the instinct of reproduction. Hunger is a manifestation of the self-preserving instinct. Lust is a manifestation of reproductive instinct. An instinct is an involuntary prompting to action.
The Jiva or the individual soul with egoism wants power, name and fame. This is for self-aggrandisement. Exploitation is greed. It is the act of using for selfish purposes. Domineering is to command haughtily. The Jiva wants to exercise power over others. This is Jiva-Bhavana. The root cause for industries, business, commerce, etc., is greed and self-preservation. If you want to have constant Brahma-Bhavana, you will have to give up exploitation and domineering.
There is another third instinct, viz., the herding instinct (the instinct for company). Woman take delight in the company of men. Men take delight in the company of women. The root cause for this is reproductive instinct. Another reason is that a weak man gains strength in the company of a strong man. But, a man who wants to realise God should shun ruthlessly company-particularly, the company of women and worldly-minded persons. He should live alone. Then he will become very powerful and strong. He will develop a strong individuality. One will find difficulty in the beginning in the practice of living alone. Fear will come in. You will have to overcome all difficulties, one by one, if you want to attain immortality (Amritatva). The reward is very great: Brahmavit Paramapnoti (A Knower of Brahman gets the Highest); Amritamasnute (He drinks the nectar of immortality).
An impulse is a sudden propelling force. There are three kinds of impulses, viz., impulses of thought, impulses of speech and impulses of action. Mouna (silence) checks the impulse of speech. Meditation checks the impulse of wrong thinking and wrong action.
There are two important impulses. They are the sex-impulse and the impulse of speech. There is an intimate relation between impulse and imagination. Imagination induces the impulse. Impulses must be controlled by reason and will and meditation on God.
An emotion is a combination of thought and desire. Every idea is charged with emotion. Emotions are desires which are penetrated by the thought element. In other words, emotion is desire mingled with thought. The vibrations of emotions will arouse corresponding excitement in purely mental matter and all the man’s thoughts will be disturbed and distorted.
There is emotion-desire. There is emotion-feeling also. If the desire element is predominant, it is emotion-desire. If the pleasure element is predominant, it is emotion-feeling.
Raga and Dvesha (love and hatred) are the two important emotions of the mind and all the different emotions can be classified under these two headings. Wonder is a compound emotion. It is admiration and fear combined. Reverence is a compound emotion. It is awe and respect combined. Amarsha is a compound emotion. It is anger and jealousy combined. As soon as the man is pulled down to a lower level, the anger of the inferior man who was jealous vanishes.
Pleasure is a particular kind of emotion in the mind. The mind expands during pleasure. Coolness prevails in the mind. What takes place of the mind when pleasure feeling arises is not exactly understood by the western psychologists. It is incapable of being understood also by ordinary persons. Only a Yogi or a Jnani knows this psychic phenomenon. During pain, the mind contracts. Considerable heat is produced in the mind.
Many of the physical desires and emotions in man are akin to those of the lower animals. Anger and sex-impulse in man are the brutal instincts. In the undeveloped man, these desires and emotions which belong to the lower nature (Aparaprakriti) predominate and overpower the higher nature (Paraprakriti).
It is a symptom of weakness to have emotions in the mind. They should be controlled by the intellect and the will.
How To Control Emotions And Impulses
When emotions and impulses trouble you much, be indifferent (Udasina). Say to yourself: "Who am I? I am not the mind. I am Atman (all-pervading Spirit, Suddha Sat-Chit-Ananda. How can emotions affect me? I am Nirlipta (unattached). I am a Sakshi (witness) of these emotions. Nothing can disturb me." When you repeat these suggestions of Vichara, the emotions will die by themselves. This Jnana method of controlling emotions is easier than the Yogic method of driving the emotions and struggling with the mind (Yogas-chittavritti-nirodhah).
Religious sentiment, moral sentiment, aesthetic sentiment (or sentiment for the sublime and the beautiful) are the three important sentiments of the mind. Feeling and sentiments are illusory. They are not in Atman. They are deceptions created by the mind.
Mood is a mental state. The Sanskrit term is Bhava. This term also does not express the true significance of the word ‘mood’. We say, "Mr. Naidu or Mr. Atkinson is a moody gentleman." This means he becomes a slave of the mood quickly. We also say, "That gentleman is in ‘good mood’ or ‘happy mood.’ "I can approach him now for a short interview or talk" or "He is in a very ‘angry mood.’ I should not see him now."
The English people, during the course of their conversation, use the term ‘mood’ in a broad sense. They say: "He is in a talking mood"; "He is in a silent mood"; "He is in a mood of hatred"; "He is in a mood of love"; "He is in a mood of selfishness"; "He is in a mood of jealousy"; "He is in a mood of separateness"; "He is in a mood of unity." In the light of Vedanta, these are all Vrittis (thoughts or emotions) only. Dr. Bhagavan Das, the reputed author of "Science of Emotions" classifies these under emotions only.
The Two Kinds Of Moods And Their Effects
In Vedanta, there are only two kinds of moods, viz., Harsha (joy, exultation or exhilaration) and Soka (grief or depression). In the mind, these two kinds of moods prevail. Now there is joy. Five minutes later, there is depression. These currents alternate. They belong to the Shad-Urmis (six waves). They are two waves that affect the mind-ocean.
People of gloomy moods attract to them gloomy things and gloomy thoughts from others and from the Akasic records in the physical ether. Persons with hope, confidence and cheerful spirits attract thoughts of similar nature from others. They are always successful in their attempts.
People with negative moods of depression, anger, hatred do positive injury to others. They infect others and raise these destructive Vrittis in others. They are culpable. They do great damage in the thought-world. People with happy and cheerful moods are a blessing to society. They bring happiness to others.
Just as a young, beautiful lady covers her face and does not like to come out to mix with others in society when she has a nasty festering sore on her cheeks or nose, so also you should not come in public and mix with your friends and other people when you have a mood of depression, a mood of hatred or jealousy. For, you will infect others with these moods. You are a menace to society.
How To Control Negative Moods
Sadhakas should try to eradicate depression by prayer, meditation, counter-thoughts of joy, chanting of Om, Vichara and singing divine songs. Never give room for gloomy depression. Repeat Om with Bhava. Repeat "I am Ananda-maya," "My Svarupa is Ananda." Depression will vanish. There are various causes for this depression. Cloudy day, association with evil persons, indigestion, influence by astral spirits, revival of old Samskaras of depression-all these induce depression.
When you get a talking mood, practise at once ‘Mouna’ (silence). This is an antidote to the talking mood. When you are in a mood of hatred, develop the opposite virtue of love. This mood will pass off quickly. When you are in the mood of selfishness, begin to do selfless work. When you are in the mood of separateness, try to mix with others through service, love, kindness and Kshama. When you are in the mood of laziness, do at once some kind of active work, drawing water, gardening, running, brisk walk or biking, etc.
A Jivanmukta is absolutely free from all moods. He has controlled all moods completely. He has become a master of all these moods. In Atman, there are no moods. It is pure consciousness. Identify with Atman. You can destroy all moods very easily.
The Meditative Mood
But, there is one good mood in those who practise meditation. It is termed the "meditative mood." Those who practise concentration and meditation feel this kind of mood. When this mood manifests, you must immediately give up reading, writing, talking, etc. You must immediately sit on the usual Asana (posture) and begin to meditate. Meditation will come by itself without effort. This mood is very favourable for contemplation. Watch for this kind of mood. If light disturbs you, close the windows or put on a curtain along the window. Dark room is favourable for the beginners in meditation.
Whims And Fancies
A whim corresponds to the term ‘Taranga’ in Sanskrit. Taranga means a wave. When a sudden change arises in the mind, it is a whim. Whims are Tarangas that arise in the mind. They rise up and break quickly. They drag you hither and thither. They upset you.
Everybody has his own whims. Very often you say, "He is a whimsical man," when anyone is swayed by whims. Whim is also termed caprice. Eccentricity is an exaggerated form of whim. Whim tosses a man hither and thither, if he yields to it. Whimsical actions bring on misery. It is through whim that mind tempts and deceives men. Mind cheats through whims. Whims should be checked by reason.
Do not do actions through whims. Action must be done through Viveka and wisdom. Destroy whims as soon as they arise, through Vichara. Always enquire whether the proposed action will bring you pleasure and spiritual gain or not. Be on the alert.
The word ‘whim’ always goes with the term fancy. We say, "whims and fancies." A fancy is a phase of the intellectual faculty of a lighter and less impressive cast than the imagination of the active play of this lighter faculty. Fancy is a new and pleasing thought or conception due to this faculty. Fancy is a form of imagination. It helps a poet, but not an aspirant. It is a hindrance in meditation. It builds castles in the air. Check it by Vichara and Viveka.
Just as waves and ripples rise on the surface of the ocean, whims, various caprices, fancies and wrong determinations also arise on the surface of the mind-ocean. The whims represent the ripples. You need not be afraid of these. They come and pass off quickly. You must be careful about the strong waves, wrong determinations. The strong thoughts must be eradicated by strong Vichara and proper reasoning.
Prakriti never creates a vacuum in the mind. If one anxiety or worry is over, another anxiety immediately manifests. Mind can never become vacant. It has got infinite preoccupations.
Carefully mark the ways of the mind. It tempts, exaggerates, magnifies, infatuates, unnecessarily alarms through vain imagination, vain fear, vain worries and vain forebodings. It tries its level best to divert you from concentration on your Lakshya.
It took me many years to understand thoroughly the subtle workings of the mind. Mind works havoc through its power of imagination. Imaginary fears of various sorts, exaggeration, concoction, mental dramatisation, building castles in the air, are all due to this power of imagination. Even a perfect, healthy man has some imaginary disease or other due to the power of imagination of the mind. Much energy is wasted on account of imaginary fears.
When his mind is fully occupied with the affairs of the war, the soldier does not feel any serious injury as a gunshot wound in the leg. He is not aware of the loss of a large quantity of blood also. He is filled with enthusiasm. He is not conscious of his body—so to say—for the time being. When the excitement is over, when he sees some blood-spots on his clothing or when some of his friends points out to him the wound in the leg, he gets the consciousness. Then he is alarmed a bit. The power of imagination plays havoc now. He gets a collapse now. The power of imagination always exaggerates.
A man may have a little weakness. When he becomes your enemy, you at once exaggerate and magnify his weakness and Dosha. You even superimpose on this or concoct many more weaknesses and Doshas. This is due to evil imagination on your part.
Whenever the mind of two friends are strained by ill-feelings, these minds begin to exaggerate and concoct things. Fault-finding increases. It is very difficult to get at the truth of the statements of these two broken friends with broken friendship. Their utterances are always coloured by their inner feelings. The power of imagination does havoc now. Maya plays havoc through the mind and its power of imagination.
Mind tempts and deceives. Think of one as a good friend of yours and there the thing is created as a reality. Think of him as your foe and then also the mind perfects the thought into an actuality. He who knows the working of the mind and has controlled it by practice is really happy.
I shall explain to you the nature of "mental dramatisation." Mark the ways of the mind. During conversation with your friends, the mind sometimes imagines in vain that it has hurt the feelings of your friend. It spends much of its energy in unnecessary feeling. You think: "How can I see him tomorrow morning? He may be displeased with me." Next morning when you meet him, nothing happens. Your friend starts a pleasant conversation and smiles. You are surprised. To your great astonishment, the subject of talk takes quite a different turn altogether. A family-man imagines when a severe epidemic of plague ravages: "What shall I do if my wife develops plague and dies now? I have got six children." This is his vain imagination. Nothing happens. Sometimes, when the train moves slowly on the Pamban Bridge over the sea near Ramesvaram, the mind imagines, "If the bridge gives way now, what will become of me? I shall be smashed to pieces." A touch of fear creeps in. There are thousand and one ways of mental dramatisation like these. The power of imagination plays a vital part in mental dramatisation.
When your mind is deeply concentrated, period of two hours passes like five minutes. If the mind is distracted and wandering, half an hour hangs on as two hours. This is everybody’s experience. In dream also, many events that represent a period of fifty years take place within ten minutes. Through the play of the mind, a Kalpa is considered by it as a moment and vice versa. Time is but a mode of the mind. It is Kala Sakti. It is also illusory like the objects.
Through the trick of the mind, one furlong at times appears to be a great distance and three miles at other times appear to be a very short distance. You ought to have noted this in your daily life.
Marichi Chaitanya, M.A., Ph.D., a Brahmachari of Rumania and myself sat for dinner in the Kailasa Kutia, Svarga Ashram, on the bank of the Ganga. A dish of potato soup was served. Marichi, who has no idea of Indian preparations, took it for a soup of meat. The colour and appearance of the potato soup was exactly the same as that of meat-soup. This is a case of "mental projection." Marichi projected the idea of meat from his own Samskara within the mind into the potato-soup. Mental projections are all false.
Kalpana in the mind means mental creation or imagination. This is the real Yogamaya. You will have to destroy these various Kalpanas. This is the aim of all the spiritual Sadhanas. Then you will be established in Nirvikalpa state of bliss. Pure Nivritti is needed to attain this after you have got Chitta-Suddhi through Nishkama-Karma Yoga.
Temperament And How It Can Be Modified
There are secretions from endocrine glands which are ductless viz., Thyroid, Thymus, Parotid, Pineal, Suprarenal, etc. These secretions are directly absorbed into the blood. They play a vital part in constituting the temperament of every individual. The temperament of a man can be greatly modified by environments, education and experience. It can hardly be changed in toto. That is the reason why the Gita says:
"Sadrisam Cheshtate Svasyah Prakriter-Jnanavanapi
—Even the man of knowledge behaves in conformity with nature" (Gita, III-33).
The Power Of The Human Mind
If you closely study the action of mind upon mind, of mind over matter, of mind over the human body, you will find that each man is a power in himself. You will have to develop the potential faculties by self-restraint and mastery over the passions. When mind is so much powerful, what to speak anything of the glory of Atman, who is the storehouse of everything, who is the infinite, inexhaustible central magazine of power, knowledge and bliss from whom the little mind borrows its light and power!
Illustrations Of The Power Of Mind
Whenever any fire-accident or any other kind of accident occurs, how agile and nimble you are! Do you not exhibit wonderful powers? You jump over a huge wall, save many children, run amidst fire boldly and carry things. All psychic faculties, memory, imagination, will, etc., are at play. Chivalry, intrepidity, undaunted spirit, mercy and various other noble virtues are exhibited by you. Wherefrom did you draw these faculties and powers? From this, you can conclude that you are, in reality, all-powerful. There is a big, magnanimous magazine of power inside. Go to the source by meditation and tap it. You will get everything. Rely on the Self within.
If you get a telegram at 12 a.m. on a hot day in summer, which informs you that your father is seriously ailing in your native village which is twenty miles distant, at once you leave even your food and begin to gallop. Though you yourself are not in good health at that time, you do not mind anything as you are very anxious to see your loving father. You even run the whole distance and reach the place within a couple of hours. Then you begin to wonder, "What! I was myself very sick. The day was very hot. I have covered a distance of twenty miles within two hours. What a marvel it is!" This clearly shows that you are, in reality, all-powerful. The mind possesses various kinds of powers and faculties. They lie dormant. You will have to awaken them.
The Six Important Powers Of Mind
There are three Saktis (powers, potencies) in the mind, viz., Ichha Sakti (Will), Kriya Sakti (Action) and Jnana Sakti (Knowledge). A desire arises in the mind. This is Ichha Sakti. The mind exerts to have this desire gratified. This is Kriya Sakti. It plans, schemes and finds out methods, etc., for the achievement of the desired object. This is Jnana Sakti.
Vedana-Sakti (power of perception), Smarana-Sakti or Smriti-Sakti (power of memory), Bhavana-Sakti (Power of imagination), Manisha-Sakti (power of judgment), Ichha-Sakti or Sankalpa-Sakti (will or volition) and Dharana-Sakti (power to hold) are the six important powers of the mind.
Vedana-Sakti is power of cognition or sensation or power of perception and knowing through Indriyas or senses (Indriya-Jnana or sense-knowledge).
The Smriti-Sakti does three things. It grasps. It holds. It brings to memory whenever a thing is needed. Though the power of grasping is done by the Vedana-Sakti of the mind (power of perception or cognition), the Smriti-Sakti also participates in the act of grasping.
Suppose you hear the sound of a bell in the temple. The memory Sakti grasps it. Then it retains it through Dharana. When you hear again the sound of the temple bell, it at once reminds you, "This is the temple bell. This is not the hostel bell."
In Dhyana, the mind grasps and takes possession of its perceptions or judgments. It makes the content of the idea its own. It strengthens the Samskaras so that a voluntary recall is rendered easy.
You have never seen an elephant riding a cycle. When a man, who has actually seen it, gives you a description, your mind forms a mental picture at once. This is done by the Bhavana-Sakti (power of imagination) of the mind.
Power of comparing and contrasting, drawing inferences, discussion, conclusion, all belong to Manisha-Sakti of the mind. The Manisha-Sakti (power of judgment) has got two subdivisions, viz., Nirnaya (ascertainment) and Tarka (logical reasoning).
A is mortal. B is mortal. C is mortal. Again, all men are mortal. Mr. Choudhary is a man. Therefore, Choudhary is mortal. These sorts of drawing conclusions through inductive and deductive logic with major and minor premises and middle term or through the five parts of syllogistic reasoning of Gautama Rishi’s Indian Logic (Nyaya) are done by Manisha-Sakti of the mind with the help of Nirnaya and Tarka.
Tarka has got two other subdivisions, viz., Anumana (inference) and Paramarsa (discussion). When you see a river in full flood in the morning, you infer that there ought to have been rain during previous night. When you see smoke on the hills, you infer that there ought to be fire also on the hill. This is due to Anumana.
Will is Atma-Sakti. It is the dynamic aspect of Brahman. Will is Brahman in motion. In Vedanta, will plays a very conspicuous part.
Much has been said about the power of imagination in the West—that it is the most tremendous power in the human mind and that in a conflict between the will and the imagination, the imagination would invariably win the day.
Some people say that the will is greater than imagination. In the East, amongst the Vedantins, will is regarded as a greater faculty than imagination. What would the imagination do without the impelling power of the will to execute with dynamic power the desires, wishes and ideals?
There is correlation, co-ordination and co-operation between the different principles in the mind. Therefore, who can say which is great or small, important or unimportant when each depends upon the other for its power? It cannot be truly said that the one is greater than the other, for their independence and power are derived from one another.
Dharana-Sakti (power to hold) is really a part of memory or Smarana-Sakti. In common parlance, we say, "Mr. Ramakrishna is a man of good Dharana in Vedanta." Here it means that Mr. Ramakrishna has got fixed and steady ideas in Vedanta. He cannot be changed by anybody. He is not of a wavering nature. He sticks to Vedanta alone. Nobody can shake him.
Apperception is the mind’s perception of itself as a conscious agent. The principle of apperception is just like a mail clerk of consciousness receiving, sorting out, correlating, arranging, pigeon-holing, associating and sending out messages.
How To Unfold The Latent Powers Of Mind
There are many higher mental faculties latent in man. Mind is a magazine of power. The unfoldment of these latent, psychic powers is possible through proper Sadhana. The Sadhana should be systematic, constant and intense. The student also must have reached the proper stage of development. There must be genuine Sraddha also. Then only sanguine success is possible.
To Follow: MIND VII.
So what did you understand, :-)
Sianala, Montreal, Feb 2008