Putra Bhava : The straight meaning of this term is House of Son or Sons, but it relates to Children, poorvapunya (good deeds of previous lives), intelligence, knowledge & scholarship, devotion, mantras (prayers), stomach, digestive system, authority/power, fame, love, affection, emotions, judgment, speculation.
And when we say Children, it includes both Sons and Daughters and also Neuters, all depending on the Grah /Planets posited /aspecting/ conjoined/and the house itself, there is a direct relation, this house also tells us about our past good deeds or Punya Karma, if one has children, one can infer directly that one did have Punya ( Good Deeds) Karma from the past life, if Sons or Daughters, It does not matter, but in Ancient times in India, Son was seen as a Mandatory requirement for the family lineage to progress, I do not deny that it exists even today.
5th House/ Putra Bhava is one of the important houses along with Ascendent, Yuvati Bhava, Dharma Bhava, Karma Bhava, and Labha Bhava.
Kalyana Verma's Saravali : Putra Bhava
If the Sun occupies the 5th, the native will be bereft of happiness, sons and wealth, will live by husbandry, will move in hills and fortresses, be fickle-minded, scholarly, devoid of strength and be short-lived.
If the Moon be in 5th, the native will be timid in disposition, will earn learning, clothes and food, will have many sons and friends, be a scholar and be passionate.
If Mars occupies the 5th, the native will be devoid of happiness, wealth and sons, be fickle-minded, be a talebearer, will incur evils, be wicked, distressed and mean.
If Mercury occupies the 5th, the native will be an expert in Mantras (sacred spells) and Abhicāra (malevolent spells), will have many sons, be endowed with learning, happiness and efficacy and be delighted.
If Jupiter occupies the 5th, the native will have abundant happiness, many sons and friends, be learned, courageous, wealthy and will always be happy.
If Venus is posited in the 5th, the native will be endowed with happiness, sons and friends, be fond of sexual union, be very affluent, full of everything and be a minister, or a justice.
If Saturn in the 5th Bhava: Should Saturn occupy the 5th Bhava, the native will be bereft of happiness, sons, friends, intelligence and kindness, be agitated and be poor.
If Rahu in 5th Bhava:
Underclass or foreign attributes of the children, Rahu in a Rasi of Mercury and Shani may deny children all together, though there might be a great desire for children, conception and development of children might happen in very peculiar circumstances, and yet the children might become the source of happiness and might become famous and distinguished in their culture, possibility of foreign adoption, or might get involved in raising own grandchildren.
If Ketu in 5th Bhava: Ketu will reduce the happiness one is supposed to get from the children and the effects will be like separation between the parents and the children, the native suffers from his own thoughts, hence suffering, mental and physical, the native might be weak, crafty, timid, impatient, jealous and might not have any interest what so ever in religion and travel
General understanding should be like, if the house is male or female, the lord of the 5th house is male or female, the planets occupying the 5th house are male or female, if there is any aspect from Jupiter or Venus, or Moon, etc, the number of planets, etc etc to deduce the sex and no of children and health and intelligence of the children.
Aum NamaH Shivaya!
Sianala, Montreal, Feb 2008